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The undersigned, appointed by the Schwob School of Music at 
Columbus Slate University, have examined the Graduate Music Project titled 



A Comparison of the Kodaly Methodology and Feierabend"s Conversational Solfege 



presented by Aimee Noelle Peek 
a candidate for the degree of Master of Music in Music Education 
and hereby certify that in their opinion it is worthy of acceptance. 




Columbus State University 



A Comparison of the Kodaly Methodology and Feierabend's 

Conversational Solfege 



Aimee Noelle Peek 
December 2007 



Abstract 

This paper compares and contrasts Zoltan Kodaly' s music methodology with John 
Feierabend's Conversational Solfege. Both systems for teaching music are founded upon similar 
philosophies and goals and emphasize singing in the classroom. Solfege, rhythmic syllables, and 
movement are incorporated in both methodologies. The order in which these solfege syllables 
and rhythmic meters are introduced to students differs between the two methods. The reasons 
behind this difference are discussed in detail. Folk music, the primary musical material utilized 
by both methodologies, is also examined. 

All concepts in either the Kodaly method or Conversational Solfege progress through 
specific stages to ensure sequential instruction and the students* understanding. The Kodaly 
method utilizes three main steps: preparation, presentation, and practice. Conversational Solfege 
uses a twelve step process similar to the three stages found in the Kodaly method. Throughout 
instruction, different musical concepts may be presented at various stages in both of these 
philosophies. 

The final portion of this paper provides a year long flow chart and lesson plans for two 
months that address students in grade one. These plans synthesize the ideas discussed in the 
paper. They also select ideas from both the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege that the 
author feels would be most useful in her classroom. 



11 



Table of Contents 

I. Introduction 1 

II. Kodaly and Feierabend 2 

III. Philosophy Behind the Kodaly Program and Conversational Solfege 3 

IV. Goals 6 

V. Solfege 8 

VI. Rhythmic Syllables 9 

VII. Folk Music 12 

VIII. Movement 17 

IX. Lesson Planning 17 

X. Conclusion 22 

XI. Project Description 27 

XII. Appendices 

Appendix A: Yearly and Monthly Flow Charts for Grade One 30 

Appendix B: Lesson Plans 34 

Appendix C: Lesson Plan Songs in Alphabetical Order 68 

Appendix D: Comparison of Kodaly Program and Conversational Solfege 81 

Appendix E: Rhythmic and Melodic Sequence 83 

Appendix F: Rhythm Duration Syllables 86 

Appendix G: Feierabend* s "Letter to Elementary School Principal" 90 

XIII. References 93 



m 



A Comparison of the Kodaly Methodology and Feierabend's Conversational Solfege 
Introduction 

The crystal clear voices of children singing folk music may be heard ringing down the 
hall. Upon entering the room, it is noted that the students are demonstrating the notes of the 
songs using solfege hand signs. The chanting of a complex rhythm using a mnemonic device 
follows this. All of these activities are accomplished as the children move in time to the music. A 
time for improvisation is provided next, and the improvisations are accompanied by an ostinato 
performed by some of the students on barred instruments. 

The previous description is often a common occurrence in music classrooms today. 
Musical instruction is not a new phenomenon. Since early history, evidence of musical activity 
and training may be found as far back as the ancient Roman and Greek societies (Grout & 
Palisca. 2001). In more recent years, teaching methodologies and concepts, specifically 
developed to facilitate effective musical instruction in the classroom, have emerged in various 
parts of the world. In Switzerland. Emile Jaques-Dalcroze developed his method and the 
movement ideas found in Eurhythmies. In Germany. Carl Orff developed the approach now 
identified as the Orff methodology and the well-known Orff instruments. In America, the 
concept of Comprehensive Musicianship called for all students to be performers, listeners, and 
composers. Still other educators proposed that an eclectic curriculum, which incorporates aspects 
from many different methodologies and concepts, is the most beneficial (Carder, 1990). 

Two prominent figures in the world of musical instruction today are Zoltan Kodaly, who 
developed the Kodaly method, and John Feierabend. who developed a system entitled 
Conversational Solfege. Although these two influential men did not live in the same country or 
time period, many similarities may be found in their methodologies, as well as several 



differences. The purpose of this paper will be to examine the lives of these men and to discover 

both the similarities and differences that may be found in their philosophies. Specific emphasis 

will also be placed upon folk music, the primary musical material utilized by both Kodaly and 

Feierabend. 

Kodaly and Feierabend 

A glimpse into the lives of both Kodaly and Feierabend will help facilitate an 
appreciation and further understanding of their systems. Zoltan Kodaly was born on December 
16. 1882, in Kecskemet, a small town in Hungary. He was exposed to music at a young age by 
his father, who was a musician, and began composing early in his life. In his young adult years, 
he attended both The Franz Liszt Academy and the University of Hungary. The time he spent in 
the villages in Hungary during his younger years remained in his memory, and he became 
interested in studying the folk music from his country. As a result of this interest, he traveled 
throughout Eastern Europe with Bela Bartok to collect folk music. The influence of this 
expedition may be found in Kodaly' s compositions and later in the development of his 
methodology (Choksy. 1981 ). Throughout his life, he was a proponent of music education and 
played a key role in furthering the development of music instruction in Hungary. His love for 
music and musical instruction was evident, and on March 6. 1967. the day that he died, a trip to 
the local elementary school was on his schedule (Choksy. 1981 ). 

John Feierabend is currently on the faculty at the Hartt School at the University of 
Hartford in Hartford. Connecticut, and serves as the Director of the Music Education Division. 
He has attended Wayne State University, the University of Wisconsin, and Temple University 
where he received his Ph.D. He has authored numerous books on music education, especially for 
the young, and is considered to be "one of the leading authorities on music and movement 



development in early childhood" (University of Hartford, 2007). In addition to devoting his life 
to music education for over thirty years, Feierabend, like Kodaly, has devoted many years to 
assembling collections of American folk songs (GIA Publications, 2007). He continues to give 
presentations and has been honored by the National Association for Music Education (MENC) 
and the Organization of American Kodaly Educators (OAKE). Furthermore, he was the first 
American recipient of the international LEGO prize, an award given annually to "someone who 
has helped to make the world a better place for children to live and grow" (University of 
Hartford. 2007). 
Philosophy Behind the Kodaly Program and Conversational Solfege 

Both Kodaly and Feierabend developed their programs after witnessing a need for 
improvement in music education in their respective countries. Part of the novelty of the Kodaly 
method is the philosophy that lies at the heart of it. Kodaly believed that all who are capable of 
linguistic literacy are also capable of musical literacy, and he has stated the following: 

Without literacy today there can be no more a musical culture than there can be a 
literary one. The promotion of music literacy is as pressing now as was the 
promotion of linguistic literacy between one and two hundred years ago. A five- 
year plan should be fixed for the complete extermination of musical illiteracy, (as 
cited inChoksy, 1981, p. 6) 
Conversational Solfege also seeks to develop musical literacy in the students by addressing 
concepts or skills, such as singing, listening, reading, writing, and dictation (Feierabend, 2001 ). 

The goal for musical literacy that both Kodaly and Feierabend espouse is sometimes 
misinterpreted and involves more than mechanically learning to read note names and responding 
to the note read by pressing the correct key on an instrument. As Feierabend ( 1997a) has stated. 



it is more than a "when you see this dot in this space, press this key" approach to teaching music. 
Instead, these systems of musical instruction seek to develop the innate musicianship of the 

students. Students should be able to relay the message of a work of music expressively, not 

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mechanically, and accurately, or as Feierabend (1997a) has expressed, they should be able to 
"breathe life into [the] skeleton" of notation. Students should also be able to "hear what is seen 
and see what is heard" as well as connect to the music. Regarding this, Kodaly has stated: 
Music must not be approached from its intellectual, rational side, nor should it be 
conveyed as a system of algebraic symbols, or as the secret writing of a language 
with which he has no connection. The way should be paved for direct intuition, 
(as cited in Campbell & Scott-Kassner, 2006, p. 49) 
Therefore the goal of musical literacy that is a key aspect of both Kodaly and Feierabend's 
philosophies involves more than teaching children songs and how to read and play music. 
Instead, it develops musicianship within the students so that they see more than black dots on a 
page when they look at a piece of music. They see and hear a song, with its expressive twists and 
turns, and they are capable of interpreting a score of music beyond what is written on the page. 
Kodaly and Feierabend believe that singing is the most effective tool for teaching music 
(Szonyi. 1973, p. 32; Feierabend. 2001. p. 14). In the Kodaly method, children begin by using 
their voice, which is "the instrument the child was born with" (Choksy, 1981. p. 17). In 
Conversational Solfege, children begin their musical instruction by singing songs and eventually 
developing an extensive repertoire of folk music. Both Kodaly and Feierabend extend this idea to 
state that vocal proficiency should be developed before new musical concepts are applied to 
instruments. In reference to this idea, Kodaly stated. "We should not allow anyone even to go 
near an instrument until he or she can read and sing correctly. This is our only hope that one day 



our musicians will be able to 'sing' on their instruments" (as cited in Feierabend, 1997a). 
Feierabend (2001) also noted that the vocal before instrumental proficiency approach is taken so 
that the students are expressing "music through the instrument instead of using the instrument in 
a mechanical manner with little musical understanding" (p. 14). Therefore, both of these systems 
of music education truly utilize a singing approach. Instruments are added only if the students 
possess an understanding of the music through singing so that true musical literacy may be 
developed. 

Both Kodaly and Feierabend also share the idea that musical instruction should begin at a 
young age. This is the time in which children are developing new ideas and habits and is also the 
time in which they are most receptive to learning new concepts (Landis & Carder, 1990). 
Regarding this. Kodaly has noted: 

The new psychology states emphatically that the age from three to seven years is 
much more important for education than the later years. What is spoiled or missed 
in these years can never be repaired or recovered again. In these years the fate of 
the man is decided for his lifetime, (as stated in Kraus, 1967, p. 79) 
The idea of beginning music education at a young age is also evident in the 
Conversational Solfege method. According to Feierabend (2001 ). students should be able to sing 
accurately and in tune, while maintaining a steady beat, before beginning the Conversational 
Solfege curriculum. In order for these skills to be developed by the time the child enters the 
elementary school, music instruction must have occurred before this time when the students were 
at a young age. To address this, Feierabend has developed another curriculum. First Steps in 
Music, which can be used before Conversational Solfege to instruct children in music while they 



are young, so that they will be prepared to begin Conversational Solfege by the elementary 
school age. 

Another aspect of the philosophy behind Kodaly's ideas is that music should be a part of 
the curriculum and should be considered a core subject (Choksy, Abramson, Gillespie, Woods, 
& York, 2001 ). Although it is not stated directly in the Conversational Solfege curriculum, 
Feierabend also implies this belief in the numerous musical instruction books he has written, the 
workshops he has presented, and the articles that he has written, such as his "Letter to 
Elementary School Principal" (Appendix G). Therefore, at the heart of both Kodaly's ideas 
concerning music education and Feierabend's Conversational Solfege lay very similar 
philosophical ideas that helped to bring about their development. 
Goals 

The goals for the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege are directly related to the 
philosophical reasons behind the development of these methodologies. Choksy et al. (2001) has 
noted the following goals of the Kodaly method, which are similar to the objectives of 
Conversational Solfege. Developing the musicality present in all people is one such goal that the 
Kodaly method seeks, and an examination of the musical activities in Conversational Solfege 
displays the same goal, as the students sing, listen, and compose music. Another goal, which was 
discussed above, is "to make the language of music known to children: to help them become 
musically literate in the fullest sense of the word — able to read, write, and create with the 
vocabulary of music" (Choksy et al.. 2001. p. 83). Students instructed under both the Kodaly 
method and Conversational Solfege are taught these valuable musical skills throughout the 
curriculum. A third goal is to inform students of their "musical heritage" by having them study 
folk songs composed in their language. These songs can serve as representatives of their culture 



(Choksy et al., 2001. p. 83). A further goal is to allow children the opportunity to study superior 
art music from around the world so that they may develop an appreciation and knowledge about 
this music (Choksy et al.. 2001, p. 83). Both the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege 
provide the students with opportunities to experience this art music while in the music 
classroom. 

In an overview of both the Kodaly system and Conversational Solfege, sequential 
instruction, based upon the children's physical, vocal, and mental development, is the basis for 
instruction. Concepts are taught from simplest to more complex (Choksy, 2001 ), and Feierabend 
(1997a) has noted: 

Conversational Solfege... develops music literacy skills through a 12-stage 
process that culminates in one's ability to write original musical thoughts 
(compose). Beginning with the simplest rhythmic and tonal patterns, each stage 
introduces a new level of understanding while building upon previous 
understandings. 
In addition, an ear before eye approach is taken, which helps to develop inner hearing. Regarding 
this ear to eye approach Feierabend (2001 ) has stated. "Learning to understand music by ear and 
later by reading and writing ensures that the ear and musical mind are playing an active role in 
the processing of musical ideas" (p. 9). In both systems, songs are initially taught by rote as the 
children's ears are developed. Patterns are also taught before songs "so that when the students 
arrive at the songs and rhymes, they can be sung with joy instead of careful deliberation" 
(Feierabend, 2001, p. 13). Furthermore, experience should occur before symbols, and concrete 
ideas before abstract ideas (Choksy, 1981 ). 



The tools used in both Kodaly and Feierabend's musical systems will be examined next. 
These tools, or practices, are the experiences that the students encounter in the classroom as they 
develop into musicians. Neither Kodaly nor Feierabend were the sole creators of the practices 
utilized in either method. Instead, the tools used in their methods were first introduced in various 
parts of the world, and the uniqueness of Kodaly's method and Feierabend's Conversational 
Solfege comes "in the way in which these previously separate techniques were combined into 
one unified approach*'' (Choksy et al., 2001. p. 81 ). 
Solfege 

The first practice to be examined will be solfege. This tool for musical instruction was 
originally developed in Italy (Choksy et al.. 2001 ). and Kodaly's inspiration for using movable 
do came from England (Choksy, 1981 ). Utilizing movable do in the music classroom assists the 
students in being able to focus on "pitch relationships and pitch functions within a tonal system," 
as opposed to focusing only on isolated pitches (Choksy. et al., 2001, p. 85). Kodaly felt strongly 
about using movable do and has stated, "The ability to shift from one tonic to another is the 
secret of good reading. This is facilitated by using [solfege] syllables" (Landis & Carter, 1990, p. 
58). Conversational Solfege, as its name suggests, also incorporates solfege into the curriculum. 
In addition, it is similar to the Kodaly method in that it uses movable do. 

One major difference between these systems occurs in the order in which the solfege 
syllables are introduced (Appendix E). The Kodaly process introduces sol and mi as the first 
solfege syllables (Choksy. 1981. p. 166). The minor third interval from sol to mi was a common 
occurrence in children's rhymes and folk songs in Hungary, so this was a natural choice. In 
America, where Conversational Solfege was developed, do, re, and mi were found to be some of 
the most common tones found in traditional folksongs, and the sol and mi syllables used first in 



the Kodaly system were not often found in authentic American folksongs. La, so, and mi were 
syllables more commonly found in American music, but Feierabend (2001) has noted that he 
chose do, re, and mi as the first notes because "the presence of the resting tone seemed more 
indicative of [the American] tonally based musical culture'" (p. 10). 

Solfege is accompanied by hand signs in the Kodaly method, but no mention of it is made 
in Conversational Solfege, although these signs are often used simultaneously with solfege in 
American classrooms that use Conversational Solfege. The idea of hand-singing was originally 
developed by John Curwen in England and later modified for Hungarian schools (Choksy et al., 
2001 ). Although Kodaly did not mention hand-singing in his writings, he did instruct Jeno 
Adams, who worked with him and first presented the method in writing. (Landis & Carter, 1990, 
p. 73) to include hand signs as a part of the methodology (Choksy, 1981 ). Hand signs are 
included with solfege syllables because using both of these together assists students in 
developing tonal memory and helps make the practice of tonal memory more secure (Choksy et 
al.. 2001). 
Rhythmic Syllables 

Another tool used in both the Kodaly process and Conversational Solfege is rhythm 
duration syllables (Appendix F). These syllables aid the students in learning how to speak the 
rhythms and later play them. They are not actual names but are ways to voice the rhythm. Note 
names, such as quarter note or half note, are taught in both methods, but this occurs after the 
students are able to effectively read the duration syllables (Choksy et al.. 2001 ). The syllables 
utilized in Kodaly's process were developed by Jacques Cheve in France. In this system, ta 
represents a quarter note; ti-ti represent two eighth notes: ta-ah represents the half note; and ti-ri, 
ti-ri represents four sixteenth notes. 



Conversational Solfege utilizes a different system of rhythmic-duration syllables than the 
Kodaly method. The rhythmic mnemonic devices used in this methodology were developed by 
James Froseth and Edwin Gordon. In this system, du is the rhythmic syllable and is always said 
on the beat. Notes occurring between the beats are given other labels depending on where they 
fall. Although Conversational Solfege does use Froseth and Gordon's syllables, it is noted in the 
Conversational Solfege teacher manual that an alternate system may be used if it is preferred 
(Feierabend, 2001). 

When teaching rhythm in the Kodaly system and Conversational Solfege, the order in 
which duple and triple rhythms are introduced varies. In the Kodaly process, duple meter 
precedes the teaching of triple meter, whereas, in Conversational Solfege, the students are taught 
triple meter, along with duple meter, from the initial stages of the curriculum. The reason behind 
this may be found when examining the language used in the folk songs from the respective 
countries. 

Kodaly developed his idea in Hungary, and the folk songs found there incorporate the 

natural aspects of the spoken language. In the Hungarian tongue, the stress is placed on the first 

syllable of words: 

Ha en ci-ca vol-nek 
> > > 

When these natural rhythmic stresses in language are applied to the folk music there, the music is 

in "simple duple meter" (Choksy, 1981. p. 180). In contrast, the English language is primarily 

"iambic"" in nature, beginning on unaccented syllables, which results in "compound duple meter" 

when applied to music (p. 180). For example, the English translation of the Hungarian sentence 

above is as follows: 



10 



If I were a pussy-cat (Choksy, 1981, p. 180). 
> > 

In both the Kodaly system and Conversational Solfege, these natural aspects of language, which 

in turn may be found in the folk music from Hungary and America, are considered in the 

curriculum when music material is chosen and a sequence for instruction is developed. 

When Kodaly developed his process, he chose to use Hungarian folk music as the 
primary musical material in the beginning stages of music instruction because this music 
contains the natural aspects of his country's language. As a result, simple duple meter is used 
first in the classroom, and 6/8 is often not introduced until the "fourth year of a six-times-weekly 
music program" (Choksy, 1981. p. 180). In many Hungarian classrooms, before 6/8 time is 
presented to the students, they have been taught 2/4 time, 4/4 time, 2/2 time, 3/4 time, and 3/8 
time. In addition, they have also been previously taught quarter notes, eighth notes, rests, dotted 
quarter notes, sixteenth notes, dotted eighth notes, and syncopated rhythms (Szonyi, 1973, p. 34). 
When teaching 6/8 time in the Kodaly system as it was established for the music students in 
Hungary, students are often presented with 2/8. 3/8, and 4/8 meters, which serve as an 
introduction to 6/8 time. Additionally, the 2/4 meter may be used to introduce 6/8 time. Because 
6/8 time is so rare in Hungarian folk music, teachers in Hungary must often look to music from 
other countries in order to present compound duple meter to the students (Choksy. 1981 ). 

In the Conversational Solfege manual. Feierabend (2001 ) has noted that although 
English- speaking rhythms are primarily compound duple in nature, simple duple meters are used 
as well. As a result, both 2/4 and 6/8 meters are introduced early in the curriculum and are 
presented together throughout. Instruction begins with the simplest meter, such as 2/4 time and 
moves to the more complex, such as 6/8. Unit one begins with instruction in the quarter note and 
two eighth notes, as found in 2/4 meter (Feierabend. 2001, p. 86). Unit two progresses to the 



11 



dotted quarter note and set of three eighth notes, as they are used in 6/8 time (p. 134). Unit three 
continues the study in 6/8 and introduces the rhythmic pattern made up of the quarter note 
followed by the eighth note (p. 180). Unit four serves to reinforce the rhythmic patterns learned 
in previous units. This concludes level one. New note values, rhythmic patterns, and meters 
continue to be introduced in Conversational Solfege levels two through four. After level four, 
focus is placed upon introducing more complex melodic and harmonic aspects of music, such as 
scales, modes, and modulations, and new rhythms and note values are not presented. At this 
stage, the rhythms taught previously are practiced and reinforced (p. 274). 
Folk Music 

Solfege. hand signs, and rhythmic syllables are tools that are used in both the Kodaly 
method and Conversational Solfege, but these tools are not new and have been incorporated into 
other music methodologies. One aspect of these methods that is unique is their use of folk music 
as the primary music material, and it is folk music that "determines the pedagogical sequence" in 
both of these methods (Zemke. 1990. p. 94). In addition, children's games, nursery songs, and 
rhymes are incorporated (Choksy. 1999. p. 14; Feierabend. 2001. p. 9). Folk music in particular 
is an intricate aspect of the Kodaly system and of Conversational Solfege, and both of these 
methods utilize folk music in their respective curriculums for a variety of reasons. 

Kodaly" s quest for folk music exposed him to numerous songs from his native country, 
and his fascination with folk music is displayed in the development of his methodology. He 
believed that "the folk songs of a child's own linguistic heritage constitute a musical mother 
tongue" and therefore should be incorporated into the music curriculum (Choksy et al., 2001. p. 
82). Using songs that contain the familiar stresses and nuances found in language can aid the 



12 



child in learning the "tunes and words" of a song, and can assist the child in developing an 
understanding of his or her own language (Choksy et al., 2001, p. 82). 

In addition, incorporating folk songs into a music curriculum can also help students to 
develop an appreciation of their own culture and heritage as they sing and move to songs written 
by those who helped found their country, by those who possibly toiled and died to make their 
country what it is today, and by their own ancestors. These are the songs that might have been 
sung by children when the country was being developed, or sung and danced to by the students' 
grandparents in years past. They tell a story; they tell a history, and, as Kodaly has stated, "[They 
are] the most complete expression of the national soul, the nucleus and basic stock of national 
musical culture" (as stated in Kraus, 1990, p. 82). To neglect the folk song as a musical material 
for the music classroom is to neglect a viable and valuable resource that may be found in almost 
any country. Regarding the use of folk music in the classroom, Kodaly has exclaimed, "If we do 
not build on our own musical tradition then we build on sand" (as cited in Kraus, 1990, p. 82). 

Conversational Solfege is similar to the Kodaly technique in that it incorporates folk 
songs from the country in which it was developed into its curriculum. Instead of incorporating 
"artificially contrived school music" into the curriculum, students learn to develop musical 
literacy by singing songs composed in their own country in years past and passed down to the 
present (Feierabend. 1997a). The reasons behind the selection of folk songs as the primary 
musical material in Conversational Solfege are much the same as those stated by Kodaly. 
Feierabend (2001 ) has explained that folk songs display "the natural melodic and rhythmic 
inflection of our musical language" (p. 9). Therefore, when folk music is utilized in the 
classroom, the students are presented with musical materials consisting of patterns, meters, and 
tonalities that are found naturally in their society. 



13 



Folk music may also be used in the classroom to reveal the "aesthetic subtlety" of the 
individuals who played a role in both the development and dissemination of that music 
(Feierabend, 1997a). Students are able to learn about the people that came before them and are 
allowed the opportunity to develop an understanding of their ancestors. Children are also given 
the chance to build a sense of "community" with their peers as they develop a common 
understanding of the past (GIA Publications. 2007). In addition to these benefits, Feierabend's 
online biography has stated: 

When adults share child like memories with children they not only connect 
children with their ancestors, they enrich their children's childhood and enable 
their children to some day tap into their own delicious childhood memories in 
order to share that same repertoire with their children. (GIA Publications, 2007) 
Teachers of Conversational Solfege have therefore realized that folk music may be used as 
valuable musical material in the classroom and can serve to enrich the students' lives in years to 
come. 

Kodaly and Feierabend both incorporate folk music into their curriculums, but this does 
not include all folk music from the country. Instead, both of these educators were concerned that 
children were not experiencing high quality music in the classroom. In an article, Feierabend 
directly quotes Kodaly on this subject: 

But nothing is as harmful as a distorted Hungarian folksong. The child will 
become bored: in fact he will come to loathe the hackneyed outward trappings of 
the superficial Hungarian character before he comes to know the genuine one. It is 
the greatest crime to fill the child's soul with that sort of thing instead of the 
traditional songs, (as cited in Feierabend, 1997a) 



14 



Instead of presenting students with all examples of folk music, both Kodaly and Feierabend 
suggest that certain criteria be met in the musical material chosen. Zemke, in her article 
discussing the Kodaly system, (1990) has noted four basic guidelines to be considered when 
selecting musical material from folk songs for the classroom. The first of these is that the topics 
presented in the songs should be applicable for children. Next, the language used should be clear 
and direct so that it may be easily understood, as well as appropriate for children. Furthermore, 
the folk song should invite the children to use their imaginations, as well as creativity skills. 
Finally, the song should consist of words and a melody that fit well together on the students' 
level, and it should emotionally attract the students so that they may respond (p. 94). 

Feierabend ( 1996) has also discussed the qualifications for good music literature. He 
believes that songs "in which the text relates to the make-believe world of the young child" are 
of primary importance. The songs selected should encourage students to participate in a fantasy 
world where creativity and imagination are utilized. The musical material itself, outside of the 
meaning of the text, should also be examined, and the way in which the words and melody are 
joined should reflect the natural spoken language of the students in '"ups and downs, dramatic 
moments, intensifications, and repose of spoken inflection.*' 

After using high quality folk music in the music classroom, Kodaly and Feierabend each 
suggest that well-written folk music from other countries be introduced so that the students can 
have the opportunity to experience a variety of music styles and to develop a better 
understanding of people in other countries by examining their music. Kodaly (1990) refers to this 
as taking a "'unilinguar approach, in which an understanding of the students* own culture and 
music is developed before students begin to examine and understand other cultures by learning 
their folk music (p. 76). Feierabend ( 1997a) also uses this approach and states that quality 



15 



literature, which may be found in many examples of folk music, should be used in the classroom. 
When examining the songs provided in the Conversational Solfege teacher's manual, it is 
apparent that folk music from other cultures is included in the curriculum. Songs begin in 
English, and later occur in Spanish. French, German, and even Yiddish. Regarding folk music, 
Kodaly has used the following quote from Robert Schumann: "Only those who are assiduous in 
singing folk-songs can really appreciate the character of other people" (as cited in Szonyi, 1 973, 
p. 33). Therefore, instructing students with high quality folk music develops an understanding in 
the students of themselves and their culture, as well as an understanding and appreciation of the 
music and culture of others. 

Well-composed music material from the great composers, or "masterpieces" as Kodaly 
describes them, should also be taught to the students so that they may have the opportunity to 
develop an appreciation for these composers (Choksy, 1981, p. 8). Kodaly ( 1990) has stated that 
this appreciation and understanding is "the final purpose" for using folk music from one's own 
country, and he further elaborates that Haydn and Mozart are two fine examples of composers 
whose music may be confidently incorporated into the music classroom (p. 77). Feierabend 
(1997a) takes this same approach and has also stated that teachers should draw from a "rich 
repertoire of great composed pieces." in addition to folk music, when compiling musical 
materials for the classroom. The concept of classical music is addressed in the Conversational 
Solfege curriculum, and a CD containing recordings of from some of the great composers, such 
as Bach. Beethoven. Schubert. Ravel. Bizet. Saint-Saens, and Tchaikovsky, is provided. 
Therefore, students in both the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege encounter a variety of 
quality music in the music classroom. This music ranges from the folk music found in one's own 
country to that of other countries, and extends to the great composers of the past. 



16 



Movement 

Movement is also an important aspect of both of these methodologies. In the Kodaly 
method, the movement ideas incorporated into the music curriculum were influenced by the 
ideas of Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, who developed the idea of Eurhythmies. Certain aspects of 
Jaques-Dalcroze's Eurhythmies concepts, such as "stepping the beat, clapping rhythms, 
performing rhythmic ostinati, [and] rhythmic movement of various kinds" may be seen in the 
Kodaly system (Choksy, 1981. p. 10). In addition, movement ideas from the play of children, as 
well as the movement associated with folk songs and games, should be incorporated (Szonyi, 
1973. p. 16). Movement is an intricate part of the life of a child, and when it is incorporated into 
the music curriculum the use of it draws upon the natural interests of the child. 

Feierabend (2001 ) has stated that movement should be included as part of a "good 
general music curriculum" (p. 72). He describes this excellent curriculum as one that includes 
instruction in "musical literacy", "knowledge about music", and "doing music" (p. 73). 
Conversational Solfege specifically addresses the musical literacy category, and if this method is 
used only as it is written, the other two important aspects of musical development are neglected. 
Feierabend (2001) has noted that it is the responsibility of the teacher to include "knowledge 
about music", as well as "doing music."" in addition to using the ideas presented in 
Conversational Solfege so that all aspects of the child's musical development are addressed. 
Therefore, although movement is not specifically addressed in the Conversational Solfege 
method. Feierabend (2001 ) stresses that it is to be included in every lesson (p. 74). 
Lesson Planning 

All concepts introduced in either the Kodaly process or Conversational Solfege progress 
through specific stages. Sequential progression through these steps ensures that the concepts and 



17 



ideas are fully taught, and subsequently understood. Three stages are used in the Kodaly process. 
They are as follows: preparation, presentation, and practice, all of which include assessment. 

In (he preparation stage, students are presented with unknown musical material, such as a 
rhythm or melodic pattern. They sing the melody or the rhythm but have not been taught how to 
identify it. Instead, it is presented to them "subconsciously" (Choksy, 1999, p. 172). In this stage, 
creativity and improvisation are also included. 

In the presentation stage, the students are consciously made aware of the unknown 
musical material they were presented with in the previous step. This occurs first verbally and 
then symbolically. For example, at the preparation level, students have been clapping rhythms 
that contain "ta." During the verbal presentation stage, students are simply told that the rhythm 
they have been clapping is "ta." At the symbolic presentation level, students would be shown the 
notation used for "ta." which would consist of a straight vertical line. Every time they see this 
line, they are to say "ta." Creativity and improvisation also occur at the presentation level. 

The practice stage follows. During this step, students work with the new concept 
presented in the previous stage. At this step, they may return to the songs introduced in the 
presentation stage, and they are now able to identify the new concept in these songs. According 
to Choksy (1999), this stage may also be referred to as the "reinforce" stage, where the students 
work to develop confidence with the new concept (p. 172). During this stage, students practice 
listening, reading, and writing with the concept presented in the previous stage. During 
instruction in the Kodaly process, the students undergo assessment by the teacher to ensure that 
the students comprehend the ideas taught (Choksy, 1999). 

Throughout this process, different concepts may be presented at different stages. For 
example, the concept of a steady beat may be at the practice stage, while "ta" is at the 



18 



preparation stage. In addition, familiar ideas are examined before unfamiliar ideas, and inner 
hearing is included at every level (Choksy, 1999). Utilizing the three stages used in the Kodaly 
system helps the students to gain a deeper level of understanding of new concepts instead of a 
surface knowledge that is quickly forgotten. 

Conversational Solfege is also taught using stages, much like the Kodaly system, but 
Feierabend has expanded upon the three step idea used in the Kodaly method to specifically 
address singing, reading, and writing music in a twelve step process. In the first stage, readiness, 
rote, students are presented with new ideas through rote learning. They are unable to identify 
certain concepts at this stage, but these concepts will be formally introduced at a later time. Next 
is conversational solfege, rote. This is much like the presentation stage in the Kodaly process. At 
this level, students are introduced to a new concept. Step three is conversational solfege, decode 
familiar. This stage seeks to determine if the students have "bonded rhythm and/or tonal patterns 
with the correct syllables" (Feierabend, 2001. p. 11). The students repeat familiar patterns and 
songs after the teacher with rhythm or tonal syllables. Like Kodaly, working with unfamiliar 
material occurs next, in the conversational solfege, decode unfamiliar stage. This is much the 
same as the conversational solfege, decode familiar except that students must apply the rhythm 
and tonal syllables used in the previous stage to unfamiliar material rather than familiar material 
(Feierabend. 2001. p. 11). Conversational solfege, create is step five, and during this stage 
students create using the rhythm and tonal patterns used in the previous stages. 

The subsequent three steps involve reading, and reading, rote is the next stage to occur. 
At this level, the students are instructed in notation, and they repeat the notated patterns after the 
teacher, while looking at the notation. Reading, decode familiar follows this. This stage serves to 
evaluate if the students have "bonded the notation for rhythm and/or tonal patterns with the 



19 



correct syllables" (Feierabend, 2001, p. 12). Students look at familiar notated patterns and then 
speak or sing them. Reading, decode unfamiliar follows and is much the same as the previous 
stage except that students must now generalize the notation taught previously to new patterns. 

The final four stages involve writing. Writing, rote is the initial stage, and at this level 
students are taught how to write notation. Writing, decode familiar follows. This level utilizes 
both conversational decoding skills, as well as writing decoding skills. Students must listen to a 
pattern, use their conversational skills developed earlier to understand what they hear, and write 
that pattern. The musical material used is familiar at this stage, but in writing, decode unfamiliar, 
students must listen to. understand, and write unfamiliar patterns. The final stage is writing, 
create. At this stage, students must create music in their heads by using inner hearing and then 
transfer these ideas into writing. 

Like the Kodaly method, more than one stage may be occurring at any given point in 
Conversational Solfege. In addition, both methods use familiar material before unfamiliar 
material, as can be observed in the twelve step method. Furthermore. Feierabend (2001 ) has 
noted in the curriculum that "it is possible and desirable to include inner hearing activities" at 
every level (p. 13). This same idea is found in the Kodaly method. Although the Kodaly method 
consists of three stages, and Conversational Solfege is comprised of twelve very specific steps, 
both of these methods use the same teaching-learning approach. The pedagogical order for 
instruction in the Kodaly method is "hearing, singing, deriving, writing, reading, and creating" 
(Choksy. 1981, p. 10). Each of these is to be taken through the preparation, presentation, and 
practice stages. Conversational Solfege also specifically addresses hearing, singing, reading, 
writing, and applying past knowledge in the twelve steps and takes these musical activities 
through the readiness stage, which is similar to preparation level in Kodaly's method; the rote 



20 



stage, which resembles Kodaly' s presentation stage; and reading and writing, which occurs in 
Kodaly' s practice stage. Therefore, in both the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege all 
concepts progress through a preparation, presentation, and practice stage so that concepts may be 
more easily understood and remembered by the students. 

Lesson planning is an important aspect of both of these methodologies. Concepts must be 
introduced in a logical, sequential order, which requires planning and forethought. As was 
mentioned above, when lessons are presented, several concepts may be at different stages of 
development. In order to ensure that each of the concepts presented are introduced thoroughly 
and logically, lesson planning and unit planning is vital. 

In both the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege, every lesson should include three 
primary goals. These objectives are to reinforce the past, present, and future ideas being taught 
(Feierabend. 2001. p. 75). Feierabend (2001) extends this idea by suggesting that when a "past" 
literacy objective is focusing on rhythm that the "present" objective focus on some other 
concept, such as a tonal idea related to solfege. Practicing this can keep "both rhythm syllables 
and solfege thinking fresh in the students' minds" (p. 75). Past literacy goals are those that the 
students should have previously accomplished in order to participate in the lesson for that day. 
Present literacy objectives are based upon the unit plan and lesson plan for the day, and 
Feierabend (2001 ) has stated that there are most often "two or more present "objectives (p. 75). 

The final goal is entitled the future literacy objective. This objective corresponds with the 
preparation level in the Kodaly method or the readiness rote stage in Conversational Solfege. 
This goal of this objective is to introduce song material to the students so that when it is time for 
the new concept to be introduced, the students are already familiar with the songs. At this point. 



21 



they only an explanation of the new concept is necessary, instead of completely starting over 
with new repertoire once {he present objective has been completed (Feierabend, 2001, p. 75). 

As was described above, folk music is utilized to determine the order in which musical 
concepts will be introduced to the students in both the Kodaly method and Conversational 
Solfege. Another factor must also be taken into consideration when planning lessons for these 
two methodologies. Kodaly and Feierabend call for musical instruction that is based upon child 
development, rather than subject logic, which implies that the order of instruction is guided by 
the natural abilities of the child "at various stages of growth" (Choksy, 1999, p. 10). 

Instead of being presented with information in the order in which the subject would make 
sense logically, the students are introduced to concepts when they are physically and mentally 
developed enough to learn them. For example, subject-logic would state that whole notes are 
taught first, followed by half notes, then quarter notes, because this is mathematically logical; 
this progression moves from the whole to smaller units. Using a subject-logic approach to 
instruct students in note values would be especially difficult if the students have not been 
introduced the idea of keeping the "basic beat" (Choksy. 1999, p. 9). Instead, the quarter note is 
presented first, and larger note values follow. 
Conclusion 

The Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege contain many similar attributes, as well 
as differences (Appendix D). The overall goal of each is to develop in the child a musical literacy 
that will extend throughout adulthood. Both Kodaly and Feierabend believe that this musical 
development should begin with the very young. Also, all concepts are introduced through 
singing before instruments are incorporated so that musicality may be developed in the students 
rather than a mechanical performance of the notes. 



22 



In addition, the tools used for each method are similar. Solfege with movable do is 
utilized, and hand signs are incorporated. Although both systems use solfege syllables, the order 
in which these syllables are presented varies and is primarily based upon the folk songs found in 
that particular country. In the Kodaly method, la, so, and mi are introduced first because these 
are the primary syllables found in Hungarian folk music. In Conversational Solfege, do, re, and 
mi are taught initially to students because much American folk music contains these solfege 
syllables. 

Rhythm syllables are also a tool utilized in both the Kodaly method and Conversational 
Solfege, and the order in which these are presented is based upon the country's folk music. In 
Hungary, the primary meter used is duple. The Kodaly method first introduces rhythmic 
syllables associated with note values often found in duple meter, such as a single quarter note, 
two eighth notes, a half note, and a whole note. In Conversational Solfege, both duple and triple 
meters are introduced early in the curriculum. Rhythm syllables associated with triple meter, 
such as three eighth notes, a quarter note followed by an eighth note, and the dotted quarter note, 
are introduced along with the note values often associated with duple meter. Movement activities 
are included in each method, as well as improvisation and composition. 

When teachers of both the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege prepare their 
lessons, each concept introduced should progress through specific steps. In the Kodaly method, 
these steps are preparation, presentation, and practice. In Conversational Solfege. twelve steps, 
similar to the three steps in the Kodaly method, must be followed. Concepts should be 
introduced sequentially to the students, and the order in which they are presented is based upon 
knowledge of child development as well as folk music material. Furthermore, each lesson plan 
should include past, present, and future objectives for the students. 



23 



When these methods were developed, they were not incorporated immediately into 
classrooms across the country. Instead, they underwent testing in selected schools. Kodaly 
worked with his colleagues and students to develop and refine the ideas, and "the first singing 
primary school was established in Kesckemet, Kodaly's birthplace" (Choksy et al., 2001, p. 8). 
At this school, Kodaly's ideas for musical instruction were incoiporated, and the success at this 
school encouraged the development of many other similar schools in Hungary. The first known 
location that the Kodaly method was adopted outside of the Hungarian schools was at the capital 
city of Tallinn. Estonia. Since that time, the ideas and philosophies from the Kodaly method have 
spread all over the world, and today the method is used in locations found in Eastern and 
Western Europe. Japan. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa. China, Iceland, and North and 
South America (Choksy. 1999). In addition, the influence of the Kodaly method may be found in 
other music methodologies throughout the world. 

Conversational Solfege also underwent testing in schools before its ideas were 
disseminated. This testing took place in the East Hartford Public Schools, Canton Public 
Schools, and Simsbury Public Schools. During the testing, the teachers and students provided 
feedback, which was taken in order to improve on the curriculum. In the introduction to the 
Conversational Solfege Teachers Manual, Level 1, Feierabend (2001 ) thanks "the twenty years 
of public school and college students who helped determine how this method was to emerge" (p. 
4). Therefore, these two methods, which have steadily been gaining in popularity, have been 
tested and improved upon in order to provide the best possible music education for students. 

Both of these methods continue to be utilized and refined in music classrooms today and 
have proven to be successful. In reference to the Kodaly method, DeVries (2001 ) has stated: 



24 



Anybody who has taught a Kodaly -based music program will know just how 
successful it can be. From week to week, children's singing— particularly pitch- 
improves: rhythmic skills improve significantly from year to year; music literacy 
develops; and children can perform music in increasingly complex parts. 
Conversational Solfege is also being utilized in music classrooms successfully, and teachers 
today in the United States have the added benefit of being able to attend workshops taught by 
Feierabend on how to effectively teach music using Conversational Solfege. Therefore, both of 
these methodologies are currently being successfully implemented into music classrooms. 
Kodaly has stated, "It is the right of every citizen to be taught the basic elements of 
music" (as cited in Choksy, 1999. p. 184). This instruction should begin with the young child in 
the music classroom so that the next generation can be musically literate adults. A variety of 
music methodologies have been developed throughout the years that can assist teachers in 
instructing students in music. While some of these methodologies are widely used, others are 
only used in part to form an eclectic curriculum or are not used at all. The Kodaly method and 
Conversational Solfege are two methodologies that are being incorporated into the music 
classroom today. The Kodaly method's influence is being felt all over the world, and 
Conversational Solfege is being utilized in the United States. 

Although the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege provide exemplary tools for the 
musical instruction of students, it must be remembered that it is the music classroom teacher who 
is ultimately responsible for the instruction of the students. It is the responsibility of music 
teachers to adapt each of these methodologies to meet the needs of the students present in that 
particular music classroom. Teachers should consider the physical and mental developmental 
needs of the student to determine the pacing at which concepts are introduced. Also, the maturity 



25 



level of the students should determine the specific songs used. In addition, the student's social 
development should be considered when selecting games and social interaction activities. 
Furthermore, the country and culture in which the music classroom is located should be 
considered so that the folk music material chosen reflects the natural speech of the students. 
Teachers should avoid "superimposing" the ideas of a methodology founded in one country onto 
a music curriculum found in another country (Choksy, 1981, p. 164). 

Therefore, the music classroom teacher plays a vital role in developing a musically 
literate society, and Kodaly has noted: 

It is much more important who is the music teacher... than who is the director of 
the opera house... for a poor director fails once, but a poor teacher keeps on 
failing for thirty years, killing the love of music in thirty generations of children, 
(as cited in Choksy, 1999. p. 1 ) 
It is the responsibility of society to offer the opportunity for music instruction for children and 
the responsibility of music teachers to provide this instruction well. The Kodaly method and 
Conversational Solfege are two music methodologies that can assist the teacher in bringing up 
children who understand and appreciate music years after their musical instruction has ended, for 
as Kodaly has stated: 

Music is a manifestation of the human spirit, similar to language. Its greatest 
practitioners have conveyed to mankind things not possible to say in any other 
language. If we do not want these things to remain dead treasures, we must do our 
utmost to make the greatest possible number of people understand their idiom, (as 
cited in Choksy. 1999. p. 8) 



26 



Developing students who can help spread the language of music as adults is the ultimate goal of 
music education. 
Project Description 

For the project portion of this paper, I have developed a year-long flow chart, a monthly 
flow chart, as well as lesson plans for two months (Appendices A and B). While preparing these 
plans, I considered the ideas presented in both the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege. 
The Kodaly method initially introduces the syllables so and mi and later introduces la. On the 
contrary. Conversational Solfege uses do, re, mi as the first syllables because these were found to 
be common syllables in American folk music. For my plans, I use so and mi initially and then 
introduce la next. Although Conversational Solfege introduces do, re, mi to begin because of 
their occurrence in American folk music, Feierabend (2001 ) has noted that so, mi, and la are also 
commonly found in authentic American folk music. 

I have chosen the so, mi, and la sequence to introduce solfege syllables for several 
reasons. First, research has proven that a minor third, such as is formed by so and mi, is one of 
the first intervals to be sung by children (Choksy. 1981. p. 18). In addition, tuning notes that are 
close together, such as do, re, mi, can often pose difficulties, especially for young children. 
Using so and mi initially, and later adding la, can assist the students in developing their ears so 
that proper tuning can occur. Furthermore, so, mi, and la are common occurrences in American 
folk music, so students are able to learn folk songs from their native land. In addition, children's 
songs and chants also contain these syllables. 

The order in which meters will be introduced is also considered in my lesson plans. The 
Kodaly method introduces simple duple initially. Compound duple is presented to the students 
much later on in their music studies because Hungarian folk song rarely contains the 6/8 meter. 



27 



Conversational Solfege also introduces simple duple first, but compound duple is introduced 
much earlier on, and both simple and compound duple meter are developed simultaneously. For 
my plans, I have chosen to introduce 6/8 time much earlier on in the curriculum than might be 
found in the Kodaly method because 6/8 time is a common occurrence in American folk music, 
and many children's songs and chants contain both simple duple and compound duple meters. 

The rhythms presented to the students in the lessons are based upon the folk music 
chosen. Therefore, simple duple and compound duple rhythms will be introduced. Both the 
Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege teach the quarter note first, which is followed by the 
eighth note, where divisions of the beat occur. This order is also included in these lessons. 
Differences in the order of rhythmic instruction occur after the introduction of the quarter note 
and eighth note between the Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege, and I have chosen to 
follow the Conversational Solfege level one order at this point, which presents the dotted quarter, 
three eighth note group, and the quarter note followed by the eighth note. This order corresponds 
with American folk music and the simple duple and compound duple meters that are utilized in 
this music. Furthermore. I have chosen to use the American adaptation of Cheve's rhythm 
syllables, as these are more natural for the English-speaking child. (Appendix F) 

The Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege instruct the students by focusing on past, 
present, and future concepts in each lesson. In my lessons, this approach is also taken. As 
students are being prepared, they will experience the new concepts, as well as creativity and 
improvisation. Next, students will be presented with information, first verbally and then 
symbolically. Finally, they will practice listening, reading, and then writing with familiar and 
then unfamiliar material. Throughout each stage, the students are provided with inner hearing 
activities to develop their ear. Therefore, in these lessons I have combined the ideas of the 



28 



Kodaly method and Conversational Solfege into a curriculum that I believe would most benefit 
students in my classroom. 



29 



Appendix A: Yearly and Monthly Flow Charts for Grade One 



30 






a. 
< 



■- 






- 



s 



cu 






> 



a 



































Triple 
Meter 
Ti-ti-ti 


Triple 
Meter 

Ti-ti-ti 






r- 




i 


Triple 
Meter 
Ti-ti-ti 


Triple 
Meter 
Ti-ti-ti 








r3 


Triple 
Meter 
Ti-ti-ti 


Triple 
Meter 

Ti-ti-ti 


Triple 
Meter 
Ti-ti-ti 






SML 

Ti-ti 


SML 

Ti-ti 


Triple 
Meter 

Ti-li-ti 


Triple 
Meter 
Ti-ti-ti 








SML 
Ti-ti 


SML 

Ti-ti 


oo r* 


oo ^- 






SML 

Ti-ti 


SML 

Ti-ti 


SML 

Ti-ti 


Ih 


s «* 

w H 


3 AV3IA3^ 


SML 

Ti-ti 


SML 

Ti-ti 


Ih 


00 r* 


oo ^ 


>I AV3IA3>I 


|h 


oo r- 


NHl^VOHHQNM AV3IA3H 


N31>IVD>I3aNI>I AV3IA3^ 


PREPARATION 
Practice Doing 


Creativity/ 
Improvisation 


VERBAL 

Presentation 


Practice 
Listening 


Creativity/ 
Improvisation 


SYMBOLIC 
Presentation 


Practice 
Reading 


Practice 
Writing 


Creativity/ 
Improvisation 



31 



y. 

3J 






w 









H 



a 3 

x: 
U 



3 g 

= a? 

» J" 

- a. 



— it 

x s- 

t- 3 

v — 

U — ■ 

0. 





Steady beat/ 
Loud, soft 






SM at verbal 
presentation 
Ta at verbal 
presentation 




u 


SM 

Movement 
Rhythms 


CO ^ 


Movement 
Ta 
SM 


co r* 




- 

— 












■o 












CD 

'E 

i) 
■— 


Musical 
cues 


Musical 
cues 


Musical 
cues 
SM 






£ 












"33 

Q 

> 


CO 


2 * 

£ H 


2£ 

co t— 


CO ^ 






CO 


-J 

CO 


p 


SML 
Ti-ti 




-a: 

it 
i* 


c 

o 


o 


it 
X! 

H 


3 
C 
— 


i> 
fa 



32 



VI 

a 

VI 
VI 

< 



— 

SB 

•_ 

2- 



On 



3 
C 
— 






— 



U 
- 



1 as 

* i_ 

£ CU 



— 0) 

a 3 

3j d 









SM at reading 
unfamiliar 


Ta at reading 
unfamiliar 




U 


CO 










— 












"O 


CO 


CO r- 


co r- 


CO ^ 




CJD 
C 

'E 

— 












£ 


CO 


CO ^ 


2 «» 

W ^ 


2 * 

w ^ 




> 


r3 




-J 

CO 


SML 

Ti-ti 






Ti-ti 
SML 


Ti-ti 

SML 

Triple meter 


Ti-ti 

Triple meter 

Three eighth notes 


Triple meter 
Three eighth notes 






C 


c 


0) 

u 
H 


u 

3 
C 


<2J 
> 



}1 



Appendix B: Lesson Plans 



34 



Formal Lesson Plan Template 



Content: 



Date: 



Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to 
at the 



using 



level of understanding. 



Present. The students will be able to 

at the 



using 



level of understanding. 



Future: The students will be able to 



at the 



level of understanding. 



Procedures: 

Opening song: 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: 

Known song: 

New song: 

Content focus: 

Recording: 

Closing game or song: 

Materials needed: 



35 



Lesson Plan One: Grade One 

Content: Present SM at verbal level of understanding; Prepare ta; Prepare SML 
Date: Month three / Week one/ Lesson one 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to sing a variety of folk songs containing SM in tune both alone 
and with a group. Students will be able to maintain a steady beat at the practice level. The 
students will know the difference in loud and soft. Students will be able to create movements for 
music and move expressively. 

Present: The students will learn a new folk song that contains SML. The students will be able to 
sing SM at the preparation level. Students will be able to tap rhythms containing Ta and Ti-ti at 
the preparation level. 

Future: The students will be able to sing and identify SM. SML, and Ta at verbal understanding 
level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: The teacher sings a greeting on SM, and students respond individually. (Prepare 
SM: Improvisation with SM) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: Students echo the rhythmic patterns performed on the drum by 
patting. (Prepare ta: Practice listening) 

Known song: 'The Counting Song" Review song. Have students add the hand motions that go 
along with the text of the song. (Prepare SM; Prepare Ta) 

New song: "Johnny Works with One Hammer" Teach song by rote. Have students pat a steady 
beat as they sing. If time, they can pat the body part sung about in the text. (Practice maintaining 
a steady beat; Practice singing in tune) 

Content focus: "Rain, Rain Go Away" Sing the song. Explain that we will call the higher note S 
and the lower note M. Demonstrate by singing. Sing again. (Present SM at verbal level of 
understanding) 

Recording: "Bug Music" from Music for Movement ami Stories (MusikGarten) The students 
listen to the music and create movements for the themes they hear in the song. (Practice creating 
movement) 

Closing game or song: "The Closet Key" The students sit in a circle. One student closes his or 
her eyes or steps out of the room. The teacher hides a key somewhere in the room or gives it to 
another student. The student then comes back to the room and tries to find the key. The students 



36 



sing louder when the student is close to the hidden key in the room and quieter when farther 
away. (Practice difference in loud and soft singing) 

Materials needed: 

Key 

Drum 

Recording of "Bug Music" 



37 



Lesson Plan Two: Grade One 

Content: SM at verbal level; Prepare SML and Ta; Practice structured movement 
Date: Month three/ Week one/ Lesson two 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to create movements for a song. The students will be able to sing 
a variety of folk songs containing SM in tune at the practice level. Students will be able to 
maintain a steady beat. 

Present: The students will be able to sing SML at the preparation level. The students will sing 
SM at the verbal understanding level. The students will perform movement activities at the 
practice level. 

Future: The students will be able to identify SM at the symbolic level. The students will be able 
to sing SML at the verbal presentation level. Students will be able to speak Ta at the symbolic 
level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "Teddy Bear" Review the song. Have the students create movements for the song. 
(Practice creating movement) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: Students echo SM patterns sung by the teacher while moving their 
hands higher or lower, depending on the pitch. (SM at verbal level of understanding) 

Known song: "Clap Your Hands" Students sing the song while patting the beat. The students 
show how many beats are in the song by holding up the corresponding number of fingers. Hearts 
are placed on the board to show the number of beats. (Prepare SML; Prepare Ta; Practice 
maintaining steady beat) 

New song: "See Saw" Teach the song by rote. Discuss the text and ask the students where a see 
saw might be found. The students sing the song again and imagine they are on a see saw. 
(Prepare SML) 

Content focus: "The Counting Song" Review and point out that the notes sung are SM. which 
was learned in the last lesson. Students sing the song on SM while moving their hand higher or 
lower. (SM at verbal level of understanding) 

Recording: "Bug Music" from Music for Movement and Stories (MusikGarten) Students practice 
the movements they created in the last lesson. (Creative movement at the practice level) 

Closing game or song: The teacher holds up pictures of different animals or items on a farm, and 
the students make the noise of the animal or item in the high or low voice. (Practice high and low 
sounds) 



3.S 



Materials needed: 

Pictures from the farm for high/low activity 
Laminated hearts to show the beats 
Recording of "Bug Music" 



39 



Lesson Plan Three: Grade One 

Content: Present Ta at verbal level; Prepare SML 
Date: Month three/ Week two/ Lesson one 

Objectives: 

Past: Students will be able to sing in tune at the practice level. Students will be able to speak Ta 
at the preparation level. Students will be able to create movements. 

Present: The students will be able to speak Ta rhythms at the verbal presentation level. Students 
will be able to move hand higher and lower for SM. Students will be able to sing SML at 
preparation level. 

Future: Students will be able to speak Ta at the practice reading level. The students will be able 
sing SML at the verbal presentation level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: The teacher sings a greeting, but adds L to the SM pattern. The students respond 
using SML. (Prepare SML) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher will sing a pattern containing Ta on a neutral syllable, 
and the students will repeat rhythms performed by teacher. Explain that these will be called Ta. 
The teacher says other Ta patterns using the mnemonic syllable, and the students repeat using the 
syllable. (Present Ta at verbal level of understanding) 

Known song: "Rain. Rain Go Away;" As the students sing, have them move their hand higher or 
lower for S and M. Tell them to pretend like they are holding an umbrella as they move their 
hand. (SM at verbal level of understanding) 

New song: "Snail. Snail" Teach the song by rote. The class holds up their fingers to show how 
many beats are in the song, and the teachers places hearts on the board to show the number of 
beat. (Prepare SML) 

Content focus: "The Counting Song" Review. Sing SM instead of words (SM at verbal level of 
understanding) 

Recording: "Rodeo: Hoe-Down" (Aaron Copland) Students create movements to the song. 
(Students practice creative movement) 

Closing game or song: "Button, You Must Wander" Review the song. The students sit in a 
circle, and one student is "it" in the center. During the song, the students pass the button secretly. 
When the sons is over, "it" identifies who has the button. (Practice in tune singing) 



40 



Materials needed: 

Button 

Laminated hearts to show the beats 

Recording of "Rodeo Hoe-Down" 



41 



Lesson Plan Four: Grade One 

Content: Ta at improvisation level and verbal level; Prepare SML; SML at improvisation level; 
SM at verbal understanding and improvisation level 

Date: Month three/ Week two/ Lesson two 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to sing in tune at the practice level. Students will be able to create 
movements. 

Present: The students will be able to improvise and repeat patterns with ta, while saying ta, at the 
verbal understanding level. Students will be able to improvise using SML at the preparation 
level. Students will be able to replace words with SM in a known song and repeat patterns of SM 
in a new song at the verbal presentation level. 

Future: The students will be able to sing SML at the verbal presentation level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: Teacher sings a greeting with SML to a student, and the student replies with SML 
and then sings the question to another student. This continues around room (Prepare SML; 
Improvisation with SML: Practice singing in tune) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: Teacher sings SM pattern on neutral syllable and students sing back 
with SM. (SM at verbal understanding level) 

Known song: "Snail. Snail" Show beat on board with heart pictures. Review and talk about 
snails. (SML at preparation level) 

New song: "Engine. Engine Number Nine" with SM then words (SM at verbal level of 
understanding) 

Content focus: All stand in a circle. Student claps improvised ta pattern while saying ta, and class 
repeats saying ta. Student selects another student (Ta at improvisation level) 

Recording: "Carnival of the Animals": Elephant (Camille Saint-Saens) Students will create 
movement that corresponds to the music they hear. (Practice creative movement) 

Closing game or song: Groups of students go to front of class to create a piece. If they hold their 
hand up high, this is S. If it is low. this is M. The teacher sings the pattern created, and the class 
repeats the pattern. (SM at improvisation level) 



42 



Materials needed: 

Laminated hearts to show the beats 
Recording of "Carnival of the Animals" 



43 



Lesson Plan Five: Grade One 

Content: SML at presentation level; Ta at verbal presentation and improvisation level; Ti-ti at 
preparation level; SM at verbal understanding level 

Date: Month three/ Week three/ Lesson one 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able repeat SM patterns at the preparation level. Students will be able 
to speak Ta at the preparation level. Students will be able to create movements. 

Present: The students will be able to repeat SM patterns and improvise their own at the verbal 
understanding level. Students will be able to arrange pictures higher and lower and sing S on the 
higher one and M on the lower. Students will be able to sing Ta at the verbal understanding level. 

Future: The students will be able to identify SML in a song and sing it at the verbal presentation 
level. Students will be able to speak using Ti-ti at the verbal understanding level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "See Saw" The class is divided into groups. One group sings the song to the 
other. This group sings the song to a different group. This is done while patting the beat is patted 
on the lap. (SML at preparation level of understanding; Practice keeping a steady beat) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher claps a rhythm while saying Ta. and the class repeats it. 
The teacher then tosses a beanbag to a student who improvises a Ta rhythm, while saying Ta. 
The class repeats. (Ta at improvisation level and verbal understanding) 

Known song: "Cuckoo" Review the song and then explain that we will sing Ta in place of the 
word cuckoo (Ta at verbal level of understanding) 

New song: "Tick Tock" Show the beats on the board with hearts. (Prepare Ti-ti) 

Content focus: Teacher sings a SM pattern with puppet, and a student repeats with puppet. 
Teacher goes around the circle doing this. (SM at verbal level of understanding and practice 
listening level) 

Recording: "Frogs and Worms" from Music for Movement and Stories (MusikGarten) Students 
create movement for the music. (Practice creative movement) 

Closing game or song: Remind the students how their hands were higher on S during "Rain Rain 
Go Away" and low on M. Students take turns going to board and arranging umbrella pictures 
higher and lower. On the higher picture, the class sings S. On the lower ones, the class sings M. 
Write SM under the appropriate picture. (SM at verbal level of understanding) 



44 



Materials needed: 

Beanbag or ball to pass 
Laminated hearts to show the beat 
Laminated umbrellas to show pitch 
Recording of "Frogs and Worms" 
Puppets for teacher and students 



45 



Lesson Plan Six: Grade One 

Content: SM at verbal level; ti-ti at preparation level; movement at practice level; SML at 
preparation level; SM at creativity level 

Date: Month three/ Week three/ Lesson two 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to improvise movements. The Students will be able to respond to 
musical cues through listening. The students will be able to sing in tune in the head voice. 

Present: The students will be able to show the hand signals for SM. The students will be able to 
improvise movement. Students will be able to create using SM. 

Future: The students will be able to say and identify the ti-ti rhythm. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "The Counting Song" Introduce the Curwen hand signs for SM and practice using 
them. (SM at verbal understanding level) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher plays a rhythmic pattern with Ta and Ti-ti on the drum, 
and the students repeat them on their own instruments (Ti-ti at preparation level) 

Known song: "Engine. Engine Number Nine" One student is the leader, like the engine leads, 
and the class copies the movement shown while singing the song. The students take turns. 
(Practice improvising movement; Practice singing in tune) 

New song: "Bye. Lo Baby. O" Introduce the song and talk about how it is a lullaby. Show beats 
on the board with heart pictures. (Prepare SML; Prepare Ti-ti; Practice in tune singing with head 
voice) 

Content focus: Students who did not get to place the umbrellas higher and lower in the last class 
now go to the front and place the pictures higher and lower. High represents S, and low 
represents M. The teacher sings the pattern, and the class repeats. Write SM under appropriate 
picture. (SM at creativity level) 

Recording: "Carnival of the Animals" (Camille Saint-Saens) Play a listening game with hula 
hoops. Students listen to a recording from Camille Saint-Saens' "Carnival of the Animals." 
During the listening, the students move like the music makes them feel. When the music stops 
they go stand inside a hula-hoop. Only two or three students are allowed in the hoop, depending 
on the numbers of students. (Practice listening to musical cues) 

Closing game or song: "Hey Betty Martin" Review and sing. The students pat the beat in their 
lap. (Practice in tune singing: Practice steady beat) 



46 



Materials needed: 

Drum for teacher 

Instruments for students 

Laminated hearts to show the beats 

Hula-hoops 

Laminated umbrellas to show pitch 



47 



Lesson Plan Seven: Grade One 

Content: SM at verbal understanding level; Ta at verbal understanding level; Ta at improvisation 
level; Ti-ti at preparation level; SM at improvisation level 

Date: Month three/ Week four/ Lesson one 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to maintain a steady beat the practice level. 

Present: The students will be able to say back Ta patterns at verbal understanding level. Students 
will be able to improvise with Ta at verbal understanding level. Students will be able to 
improvise SM at verbal understanding level. Students will be able to repeat back SM patterns at 
the verbal understanding level. 



Future: The students will be able to identify that two ti syllables occur during one beat. Students 
will be able to sing Ti-ti at verbal understanding level. Students will be able to sing SML at 
verbal understanding level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "Bye. Lo Baby. O" Review the song. Ask if anyone can remember what kind of 
song it is. When might a lullaby be used? (Prepare SML: Prepare Ti-ti; Practice in tune singing 
with head voice) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher plays a Ta pattern on the drum, and the student repeats it 
back using Ta. This student then plays a Ta pattern on the drum for another student. Half the 
students take a turn. (Assess Ta at verbal understanding level; Ta at improvisation level) 

Known song: "Engine. Engine Number Nine" Review and pat steady beat while singing. 
(Prepare Ti-ti; Practice steady beat). 

New song: "Bye. Baby Bunting". The students pat the beat in their lap. They hold up their fingers 
to show how many beats are in the song. Hearts are placed on the board to show the beat. 
(Prepare SML; Prepare Ti-ti) 

Content focus: Students come to the front of the room in groups to improvise a song. Standing up 
straight represents S. and bending down represents M. The teacher sings the pattern, and the 
class repeats, while using hand signs. (Improvisation of SM: SM at verbal level of 
understanding) 

Recording: "Frogs and Worms" from Music for Movement and Stories (MusikGarten) Students 
will review the movements they created for the music. (Practice creating movement) 



48 



Closing game or song: The teacher sings a SM pattern on a neutral syllable with a stuffed 
animal. A student sings back with SM using their stuffed animal. (Assessing SM at verbal 
understanding) 

Materials needed: 

Drum to pass around 
Laminated heart cut outs for beats 
Teacher's stuffed animal 
Students" own stuffed animals 
Extra stuffed animals 



49 



Lesson Plan Eight: Grade One 

Content: Assess SM at verbal level of understanding; Prepare Ti-ti; Prepare SML; Practice 
listening; Assess Ta at verbal level of understanding 

Date: Month three/ Week four/ Lesson two 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to play a steady beat on instruments. Students will be able to 
maintain a steady beat. Students will be able to sing in tune. Students will be able to create 
movements that match the text in the song. 

Present: The students will be able to sing back SM at verbal understanding level. Students will 
be able to repeat Ta patterns at the verbal understanding level. 

Future: The students will be able to sing SML at verbal understanding level. Students will be 
able to say Ti-ti at verbal understanding level) 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "The Counting Song" The students sing the song while stepping a steady beat. 
Point out that this is a stepping song. Next, they sing it in sections, with help, using SM. Ask for 
volunteers to sing. (Practice maintaining steady beat; SM at verbal understanding level; Prepare 
Ti-ti). 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: Teacher sings SM on neutral syllables with stuffed animal. Student 
repeats the pattern using neumonic syllables and a stuffed animal. (Assess SM at verbal 
understanding level). 

Known song: "Bye. Baby Bunting" Review. Talk about the song and the history that might have 
been happening. Show pictures. Sing the song, again with motions the students create. (Prepare 
SML; practice creating movements to match the text in the song). 

New song: "Bell Horses" Teach song by rote. Students play their bells when "bell" is sung. 
(Prepare SML; Practice listening) 

Content focus: The students sit in a circle. The teacher pats a Ta rhythm, and calls on a student 
who did not get a turn in the last lesson, to pat a body part while saying Ta. This student taps a 
rhythm using Ta. and the teacher calls on another student to tap and say the Ta rhythm. (Assess 
Ta at verbal understanding level; Improvise using Ta) 

Recording: "Carnival of the Animals" (Camille Saint-Saens) Students will play their instruments 
in time with the beat. 



50 



Closing game or song: "Button, You Must Wander" Break down the song, and ask the students 
to show the number of beats on their fingers. Hearts are placed on the board to show the beats. 
Sing the sections and have the student point to the beat. Play the game. (Practice singing in tune) 

Materials needed: 

Stuffed animal for teacher 

Students" own stuffed animals 

Extra stuffed animals 

Button 

Bells for the students 

Pictures for "Bye, Baby Bunting" 

Recording of "Carnival of the Animals" 



51 



Lesson Plan Nine: Grade One 

Content: Prepare and improvise with SML; Prepare Ti-ti; Ta at verbal level of understanding; 
SM at the symbolic presentation level; SM at practice reading familiar 

Date: Month four/ Week one/ Lesson one 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to sing SM at the verbal understanding level with hand signs. 
Students will be able to move creatively to music. 

Present: The students will be able to improvise SML responses. Students are able to speak Ta at 
the verbal level of understanding. Students will be able to read SM patterns of a familiar song. 

Future: The students will be able to clap and say rhythms containing Ti-ti. Students will be able 
to sing songs using SML syllables. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: The teacher asks the students questions using SML, and the students answer using 
SML (Prepare SML; Improvise with SML) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher claps a rhythm with Ta and Ti-ti, while the students pat 
the steady beat. They then pat the rhythm the teacher just clapped. (Prepare Ti-ti) 

Known song: "Cuckoo" Divide the students into two groups. One will sing Ta, Ta on the word 
cuck-oo. and the other will sing the remainder of the words. Have the groups swap parts. (Ta at 
verbal level of understanding: Prepare Ti-ti for verbal understanding) 

New song: "Bobby Shaftoe" Teach the song by rote. Discuss the song and have the students 
develop a story for it. (Prepare SML) 

Content focus: "Rain. Rain. Go Away" Review with hand signals. Teacher points to the higher 
and lower pictures on the board with SM written underneath. The teacher explains that the 
pictures can be taken away. Sing again with only SM, while the teacher points. (SM at the 
symbolic presentation level) 

Recording: "Rodeo Hoe-Down" (Aaron Copland) Students will review and perform the 
movements to the music. (Practice creative movement) 

Closing game or song: "The Counting Song" Review and show students the SM pattern used in 
the song. Have them sing SM while looking at the board. (SM at practice reading familiar level) 

Materials needed: 

Pictures representing SM 



52 



Marker 

Tape 

Eraser 

Recording of "Rodeo Hoe-Down" 



53 



Lesson Plan Ten: Grade One 

Content: Prepare Ti-ti; Prepare SML; Practice reading SM; Ta at verbal presentation level 
Date: Month four/ Week one/ Lesson two 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to maintain a steady beat. 

Present: The students will be able to read SM at the practice reading familiar stage. Students will 
be able to say and play ta rhythms at the verbal presentation level) 

Future: The students will be able to identify and sing SML patterns at the verbal presentation 
level. The students will be able to clap and identify Ti-ti patterns. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "Teddy Bear" Students tap the beat on their shoulders while singing (Practice 
keeping a steady beat: prepare Ti-ti) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: Teacher shows the students flashcards which display SM patterns 
and sings them while pointing to the cards. Students sing them and use hand signals. (Practice 
reading SM) 

Known song: "See Saw" Review the song. Have students get in a circle and march to the beat 
around the room. Explain that this is called a stepping song because we can step to the beat. 
Show beats on the board with hearts. (Prepare SML; prepare Ti-ti) 

New song: "Star Light, Star Bright" Teach by rote. Talk about stars and constellations in the sky 
at night. Show pictures. Sing, again. This is also a stepping song Ask student to show beats on 
the board with hearts. (Prepare SML; prepare Ti-ti) 

Content focus: "Cuckoo" Put SM pattern on board that matches "Cuckoo." Have students read 
the pattern and ask if it sounds like a song we have learned before. Add hand signs. Gradually 
erase the pattern and have students sing while doing hand signs. (SM at practice reading familiar 
level) 

Recording: "Bug Music" from Music for Movement and Stories (MusikGarten) Students move 
creatively to the music. (Practice creative movement) 

Closing game or song: Play pass the Ta to your left/right. Students sit in a circle. The teacher 
plays a Ta rhythm on the drum, and a student plays it back on another smaller drum while saying 
the syllables. This student creates a Ta rhythm without saying Ta, and another student plays and 
says it. This continues around the room. (Ta at the verbal presentation level) 



54 



Materials needed: 

Flashcards with SM pattern to show students 

Pictures of constellations 

Marker 

Eraser 

Drum for teacher 

Drum for students to pass around 

Recording of "Bug Music" 



55 



Lesson Plan Eleven: Grade One 

Content: Prepare SML; prepare Ti-ti; SM at symbolic presentation level; SM at practice reading 
familiar level; prepare triple meter; Ta at symbolic level; Ta at practice reading level 

Date: Month four/ Week two/ Lesson one 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to sing using SM syllables at the verbal level of understanding. 
Students will be able to speak using Ta at the verbal level of understanding. 

Present: The students will be able to read familiar SM patterns at the practice reading level. 
Students will be able to identify and read Ta at the practice reading level. Students will be able to 
respond to musical cues with slightly structured movement. 

Future: The students will be able to identify and say rhythmic patterns containing Ti-ti. Students 
will be able to identify triple meter by associating it with skipping songs. Students will be able to 
identify SML at the verbal presentation level) 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "Star Light. Star Bright" Review the song and the information learned about stars. 
Remind the students that this is a stepping song. Have the students show how many beats there 
are by holding up the corresponding number of fingers. Place hearts on the board to show the 
beats. (Prepare SML: Prepare Ti-ti) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: Play "Name that tune" The teacher shows the students flashcards 
that have SM patterns from known songs. The students look at the cards and sing the pattern 
using mnemonic syllables. They try to identify the songs. (SM at practice reading familiar level) 

Known song: "Rain, Rain Go Away" Review the song. The teacher assists the students in 
developing a story that might be happening during the song. Write key words on the board. Help 
students arrange words into ostinato patterns, using Ta and Ti-ti patterns. Explain what an 
ostinato is. Some students say ostinato, while others sing the song or act out the story. (Prepare 
Ti-ti) 

New song: "Oliver Twist" Teach song by rote. Point out that some songs are stepping songs and 
some are skipping. This song is a skipping song. Have students skip as they sing. (Prepare triple 
meter) 

Content focus: The teacher claps Ta rhythms, and the students tap them back on any body part 
while saying Ta. Teacher explains that we write Ta with a straight line and demonstrates. 
Teacher draws Ta patterns, and the students read them back. (Ta at symbolic level of 
presentation: Ta at practice reading level) 



56 



Recording: "Hary Janos Suite: Viennese Musical Clock" (Zoltan Kodaly) Students will be taught 
the movements for the song and will be able to respond to musical cues. (Practice movement) 

Closing game or song: "Bell Horses" Review the song. The students sing and pat the beat. Have 
the students hold up their fingers to show how many beats there are. Have a student place the 
hearts on the board to show the beat. (Prepare SML; Prepare Ti-ti) 

Materials needed: 

Pictures of constellations 

Flashcards with SM patterns to show students 

Marker 

Eraser 

Laminated hearts to show the beat 

Tape 

Recording of "Hary Janos Suite: Viennese Musical Clock" 



57 



Lesson Plan Twelve: Grade One 

Content: Prepare Ti-ti; prepare SML; Ta at reading unfamiliar level; prepare triple meter; SM at 
unfamiliar reading level 

- 
Date: Month four/ Week two/ Lesson two 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to speak Ta at the verbal presentation level and the familiar 
reading level. Students will be able to sing SM at the verbal presentation level and the familiar 
reading level. 

Present: The students will be able to speak Ta at the unfamiliar reading level. Students will be 
able to sing SM at the unfamiliar reading level. 

Future: The students will be able to speak using Ti-ti at the verbal presentation level. Students 
will be able to sing SML at the verbal presentation level. Students will be able to identify the 
triple meter by corresponding it with skipping songs. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: Get suggestions from the class on a favorite song learned in music class. The 
teacher chooses one of these that will help prepare Ti-ti or SML. All the students will then sing 
the song, while patting the beats. A student places hearts on the board to show the number of 
beats. (Prepare Ti-ti or SML) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher shows the students flashcards with Ta patterns, sets the 
tempo, and get the student started. The teacher does not speak the pattern. The students look at 
the pattern and speak the pattern using mnemonic syllables. (Ta at reading unfamiliar level) 

Known song: "Oliver Twist** Review the song. Ask the students if this is a stepping or skipping 
song. Have students sing again while skipping. (Prepare triple meter) 

New song: "Goodnight" Teach song by rote. The students pat the beat in their lap while singing. 
Have a student show the beats on the board with hearts. Explain that the song talks about friends 
visiting. Who else might visit? Sing the song, again, replacing "friends" with the new visitor. 
(Prepare SML: Prepare Ti-ti) 

Content focus: The teacher prepares a container with pieces of colored paper that correspond 
with color-coded flashcards containing SM patterns. Students are divided up into pairs. Each pair 
draws a piece of paper. The teacher shows the corresponding color card with the SM pattern, and 
the pair sings the pattern back using SM and hand signals. (SM at unfamiliar reading level) 

Recording: "Hary Janos Suite: Viennese Musical Clock" (Zoltan Kodaly) Students will be able 
to participate in slightly structured movement. (Practice structured movement) 



58 



Closing game or song: "The Counting Song" The teacher writes the SM pattern on the board for 
this song and points to it while the students sing it using hand signs. Ask if the SM pattern 
sounds familiar. Sing the song with the text, then on SM with hand sign. (SM at symbolic 
reading level) 

Materials needed: 

Laminated hearts for showing the beat 

Flashcards with Ta patterns 

Container 

Cut out colored pieces of paper 

Color-coded flashcards for game 

Recording of "Hary Janos Suite: Viennese Musical Clock" 



59 



Lesson Plan Thirteen: Grade One 

Content: Prepare Ti-ti; prepare triple meter and three eighth note pattern; SML at verbal 
presentation level; assess SM reading unfamiliar 

Date: Month four/ Week three/ Lesson one 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to sing SML in tune at the preparation level. The students will be 
able to sing SM at the verbal presentation level. The students will be able to move creatively. 

Present: The students will be able to sing SML at the verbal presentation level. The students will 
be able to sing unfamiliar SM patterns. 

Future: The students will be able to speak Ti-ti at the verbal presentation level. The students will 
be able to identify triple meter and speak the three eighth note rhythm at the verbal presentation 
level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "'Bye Baby Bunting" Review the song. Have students pat the beat and show the 
beats on the board using hearts. Say the rhythm of the song using "loo" in sections until the 
whole song can be spoken on "loo." (Prepare Ti-ti) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher claps rhythms with Ta and Ti-ti on different parts of the 
body, and the students repeat on that same body part. The teacher says a rhythm on a neutral 
syllable, and the students repeat on a neutral syllable. (Prepare Ti-ti) 

Known song: The teacher claps the rhythmic pattern for "Oliver Twist" and asks the students if 
this reminds them of any of the songs they have learned. The teacher claps the rhythm for the 
first phrase, and the students repeat. The teacher claps the second phrase, and the students repeat. 
Put both phrases together by clapping the rhythm. Put the words with the clapping. Ask if this is 
a stepping or skipping song. (Prepare triple meter; Prepare three eighth note rhythm) 

New song: "See Saw, Margery Daw" Teach the song by rote. Ask if it is a stepping or skipping 
song. Have students skip while singing the song. (Prepare triple meter; Prepare three eighth note 
rhythm) 

Content focus: "See Saw" Review this song with the students. Explain that they are now going to 
try to sing the melody with SM instead of the words, like we have done for some of our other 
songs. See if this works, and raise your hand if you hear a spot that SM might not work. Sing the 
song with SM. In the third measure this will not work. Tell the students that we are going to call 
this note, which is a little higher than S. L. Sing it again with L in the correct place. (SML at 
verbal presentation level) 



60 



Recording: "In the Hall of the Mountain King" from the Peer Gynt Suite (Edvard Grieg) The 
students are told the story behind this piece and practice walking and acting like a troll. Teach 
them the melody with the words and let them sing along with the melody on the recording. 
(Practice singing in tune; Practice creative movement) 

Closing game or song: The teacher brings the container with colored paper and the color-coded 
SM patterns. Students draw a color of paper that corresponds with a card. (Assess SM reading of 
unfamiliar) 

Materials needed: 

Laminated hearts to show the beats 

Container with colored pieces of paper 

Color-coded SM cards 

Recording for "In the Hall of the Mountain King" 



61 



Lesson Plan Fourteen: Grade One 

Content: Ta at reading unfamiliar level; SM at reading level; prepare triple meter; SML at verbal 
understanding level; prepare Ti-ti-ti; prepare Ti-ti 

Date: Month four/ Week three/ Lesson two 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to speak Ta patterns at the verbal understanding level. Students 
will be able to sing SML at preparation level. 

Present: The students will be able to speak Ta patterns at the reading unfamiliar level. Students 
will be able to sing SM patterns at the reading level. Students will be able to sing SML at verbal 
understanding level. 

Future: The students will be able to identify triple meter. Students will be able to speak Ti-ti-ti at 
verbal understanding level. Students will be able to speak Ti-ti at verbal understanding level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "Star Light, Star Bright" Review song. Have the class pat the rhythm. (Prepare 
Ti-ti) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher has written Ta patterns on the board. Each pattern has a 
letter next to it. Students draw a piece from the Scrabble game with a letter. They say and clap 
the corresponding Ta pattern. (Ta at reading unfamiliar level) 

Known song: "Cuckoo" Review the song. The students sing with the words firs with hand signs. 
The teacher points to SM patterns on the board while the students watch and sing. Students sing 
with SM, and teacher does not point to SM. (SM at reading level) 

New song/rhyme: "Jack and Jill" nursery rhythm. Teach rhyme in sections by rote. Is this a 
stepping or a skipping rhyme? Have them skip to the rhyme. (Prepare triple meter) 

Content focus: "Goodnight" Review the song. Remind the students that they learned L in the last 
lesson. The teacher sings SML patterns for this song using mnemonic syllables, and students 
repeat using mnemonic syllables. (SML at verbal understanding level) 

Recording: Symphony #5, 3 rd Movement (Ludwig van Beethoven) Have the students pat the first 
short pail of the rhythm. Is this a stepping or skipping song? Teach them the entire repeating 
rhythm and explain that Beethoven wrote this piece. Show a picture of Beethoven and give some 
personal information on him. (Prepare triple meter; Prepare three eighth notes) 



62 



Closing game or song: The students sit in a circle. The teacher speaks a Ta and Ti-ti pattern with 
neutral syllables and rolls a ball to a student, who repeats the patterns with neutral syllables. This 
student then rolls the ball to another student. (Ti-ti at preparation level) 

Materials Needed 

Recording for Beethoven's Symphony #5 



63 



Lesson Plan Fifteen: Grade One 

Content: Assess Ta at reading unfamiliar; Prepare triple; Prepare Ti-ti-ti; Ti-ti at verbal 
presentation level; SM at reading unfamiliar; Ta at reading unfamiliar 

Date: Month four/ Week four/ Lesson one 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to speak Ta patterns at the reading familiar level. Students will be 
able to sing in tune. Students will be able to participate in structured movement. 

Present: The students will be able to speak and clap Ta rhythms at the unfamiliar reading level. 
Students will be able to clap and say rhythms with Ti-ti at the verbal presentation level. Students 
will be able to sing SM at the unfamiliar reading level. 

Future: The students will be able to identify a song as being in triple meter. The students will be 
able to speak Ti-ti-ti at the verbal presentation level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "Teddy Bear" Sing the song and have the students add the motions they created 
earlier. (Practice singing in tune; Practice structured movement) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher has Ta rhythms on color-coded flashcards. A pair of 
students draw a color piece of paper and say and clap the corresponding Ta rhythm on a 
flashcard. (Assess Ta at reading unfamiliar) 

Known song: "See Saw, Margery Daw" Review the song. Ask if students can tell another song 
that talks about a see saw. Sing "See Saw." Which of these songs is a skipping song? Which one 
is a stepping song? (Prepare triple meter; Prepare three eighth note rhythm) 

New song: "Hickety Tickety" Teach the song by rote. Ask if this is a stepping or skipping song. 
Have the students sing again while skipping. (Prepare triple meter; Prepare three eighth note 
rhythm) 

Content focus: The teacher pats a rhythm and the students repeat it. The students show on their 
fingers how many beats are in the rhythm, and hearts are placed on the board to show the beats. 
The students clap again while the teacher points to the hearts. Point out that more than one clap 
is happening in some beats. Have students clap the rhythm again while pointing. Ask which heart 
has more than one clap. This heart has two claps. This is called Ti-ti. What are the other claps 
called? Say the rhythm using Ta and Ti-ti. Have the students repeat with the syllables. (Ti-ti at 
the verbal presentation level) 

Recording: Symphony #5. 3 r Movement (Ludwig van Beethoven) Have the students pat the first 
short part of the rhythm and review if this is a stepping or skipping song. Ask questions about 



64 



Beethoven. Show a picture, again, of Beethoven and review his personal information. (Prepare 
triple meter; Prepare three eighth notes) 

Closing game or so?ig: Tic-tac-toe with SM and Ta. Students are divided up into two teams 
called SM and Ta. They draw a colored piece of paper that corresponds with a color-coded card 
containing either SM patterns or Ta patterns. The team discusses the correct answer and claps it. 
If it is correct, they can place a SM or Ta on the board. The first team with three in a row wins. 
(SM and Ta at reading unfamiliar level) 

Materials needed: 

Colored pieces of paper in a container 

Color-coded Ta rhythms on flashcards 

Laminated hearts to show the beats 

Marker board 

Marker 

Color-coded SM patterns on flashcards 

Recording for Beethoven's Symphony #5 



65 



Lesson Plan Sixteen: Grade One 

Content: SML at verbal level; Ta at reading unfamiliar; SM at reading unfamiliar; Prepare triple 
meter; Prepare Ti-ti-ti; Ti-ti at verbal presentation level 

Date: Month four/ Week four/ Lesson two 

Objectives: 

Past: The students will be able to speak Ta at the reading familiar level. Students will be able to 
sing SM at the reading unfamiliar level. Students will be able to sing in tune in the head voice at 
the practice level. Students will sing loud and soft at the practice level. 

Present: The students will be able to sing SML at the verbal presentation level. Students will be 
able to read Ta at the reading unfamiliar level. Students will be able to sing SM at the reading 
unfamiliar level. Students will be able to speak Ti-ti at the verbal presentation level. Students 
will be able to do structured movement. 

Future: The students will be able to identify triple meter. Students will be able to speak Ti-ti-ti at 
the verbal understanding level. 

Procedures: 

Opening song: "Bye Lo. Baby, O" Review the song. Have the students sing the song on "loo." 
Ask them to raise their hand when they hear the new note L. Have them sing the song on SML 
syllables. (SML at verbal level of understanding) 

Tonal or rhythmic patterns: The teacher shows flashcards with Ta. and the students clap and say 
them back. The teacher shows flashcards with SM patterns, and the students sing them back. 
Have the students try to do them in reverse order. (Ta at reading unfamiliar level; SM at reading 
unfamiliar level) 

Known song: "Oliver Twist** Review the song. Ask if it is a stepping or skipping song. Have the 
students pat the beat in their laps and sing again. Students skip to the beat while singing. (Prepare 
triple meter; Prepare three eighth note rhythm) 

New song: "Lucy Locket"" Teach the song by rote. Have the students pat the beat in their lap and 
sing the first phrase. Ask if anyone heard Ti-ti. Say the rhythm with Ta and Ti-ti. Continue with 
the whole song in this manner. (Ti-ti at the verbal presentation level) 

Content focus: The teacher speaks rhythmic patterns containing Ta and Ti-ti. and the students 
repeat using Ta and Ti-ti. Have the students clap the rhythm while speaking it. (Ti-ti at verbal 
presentation level) 

Recording: "Trepak*" from The Nutcracker (Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky) Have the students pair up, 
teach them the "painting/painter" movements for this piece. (Present structured movement) 



66 



Closing game or song: 'The Closet Key" Review the song and remind students to sing to the 
head voice, even if singing louder. Play the game. (Practice singing in tune; Practice singing in 
the head voice; Practice singing loud and soft) 

Materials needed: 

Flashcards with Ta rhythm 

Key 

Recording for The Nutcracker 



67 



Appendix C: Lesson Plan Songs in Alphabetical Order 



68 



BELL HORSES 









■■■*►•-- - m 



Bell hor- ses, bell hor- ses. what's the time 



i 



day? 



f : i 



One o' - clock, two o' - clock, time to a - way. 



(Choksy, 1999. p. 192) 



BOBBY SHAFTOK 






* m 






Bob - bv Shaf- toe's gone l« scj 



Sil vcr buck- les on hi* knee. 



* 



# * 



*3 



.*. _•_. 



JS__«_. 



. .*.. 






He'll come back and mar- ry me, Hon - ny Bob - by Shaf- l<w. 



(Choksy, 1999. p. 195; 



69 



BUTTON, YOU MUST WANDER 




. 



i 



But - ton, you must wan - tier. wan - der, wan - dcr. 






But - ton, you must wan - der 



•ver - v - w tie re 



9E 



* » 



BYKBABV BUNTING 



m 



Bright eyes will find you, sharp eyes will find you. 



a 



But - ton. you must wan - der ever - y where. 



(Choksy. 1999, p. 206) 



<8> 



Bye ba - by bunt - ing Dad - dy's gone a - hunt - ing to 



-^1 tfp— 



Catch a lit- tie rab- bit skin to wrap the ba - by bunt- ing in. 



(Choksy. 1999. p. 191) 



70 



BYE, LO BABY, O 



*=± 



Bye. lo Ba - by, O, Off to dream - land you must go. 



(Choksy, 1999. p. 192) 



CLAP YOUR HANDS 



Clap, clap, clap your hands. Clap your hands to - geth- er. 

Stamp, stamp. stamp your feet. Stamp your feet to - geth- er. 



(Choksy. 1999. p. 192) 



CUCKOO 






:::*:::::::::^::z=i3::z :: =il 



Cuck - oo. where are you'? Cuck - oo. where are you? 



(Choksy. 1999. p. 190) 



71 



Engine, Engine Number Nine 



Train Song 



^m 



d d 









~9 



a d 



En-gine, engine number nine, go-ing down Cbi-ca-go line. 



-M 



^r^ 



~-* - — * 



d d 



m 



Pi 4 

9 w W ~ 



If the train goes off the track, will 1 get my money back? 



4 

— rr 



- — \ j ■■ -m£ -ag "SB j ~gm «sj j~ 



_J£ ! $L 



En - gine, en - gine num - ber nine, go - ing down Chi - ca - go line. 







— 3g J — jr~ 



l m ;.; m ::. g~~~~ ~# a 



If the train goes off the track, 1 won't get my mon - ey back. 



(Rann. 2005. p. 18) 



GOODNIGHT 



« <& 



~* — —m- 



Good- night, Sleep tight, Friends will come to - mor - row night. 



(Choksy, 1999. p. 191) 



72 



Hey, Betty Martin 



i^=g 



^m 



i 



£ 



-* — ■ » — *— 

tip - loe, tip - toe; hey, Bet-ty Mar - tin, lip - toe fine; 



Hey, Bet-ty Mar - tin. 



^S 



i=m 



i 



i 



*-..g 



Hey, Bet-ty Mar - tin, tip - toe, tip - toe; hey, Bet-ty Mar - tin, please be mine. 



(Choksy, etal.. 2001, p. 176) 



HICKETY TICKETY 



Hick 



:•) 



ty Tick 



t\ 



Bum - hie B 



ee. 



you sing your name to me? 



(Choksy. 1999. p. 196) 



73 



(Music With Ease, 2007) 



Jack and Jill Nursery Rhyme 

Jack and Jill went up the hill 

To fetch a pail of water. 

Jack fell down and broke his crown, 

And Jill came tumbling after. 

Up Jack got 

And home did trot 

As fast as he could caper 

Went to bed and plastered his head 

With vinegar and brown paper. 

So Jack and Jill went up the hill 

To fetch the pail of water. 

And took it home to Mother dear, 

Who thanked her son and daughter. 



Johnny Works with One Hammer 



2 
4 



D D I) M |S M M i R S S 

John-ny works with one ham-mer, one ham-mer 

(two) (two) 



n n 



ii till) 

D D DM S D D R R S S D 

John-ny works with one ham-mer, then he works with two." 

(two) (three) 



M 


D 


D 


one 


ham- 


met 


two) 







* Substitute "three", "four", and "five" for the next four verses 



(Daniel. 1981. p. 29) 



74 



LUCY LOCKET 



9p- 4 d =<£ 



i 



"ar"~ "jjf 



fp W I 



Lu - cy Lock- et lost her pock- et, Kit- ty Pish - er found it, 
Not a pen - ny was there in it. on - ly rib - bon round it. 



(Choksy, 1999. p. 190) 



OLIVER TWIST 



i 



t — S k 

15^ — i 40— - jjjjx. ■ > 



m « i 



E^ : ™E 



O - li - ver Twist, you can't do this. So what's the use of 



I 



m 



try - ing; Touch your knees, 



touch your toe 



b 



; Choksy, 1999. p. 196) 



Clap your hands and a round you go! 



I 



75 



RAIN, RAIN 



-i ||M i 



Rain, Rain. go a - way; Come a - gain some oth - er day; 

Sun - shine's here to stay, Now we can go out to play. 



(Choksy, 1999. p. 191) 



SEE SAW 



3BZZZZJBI 






(Choksy. 1999. p. 191) 



seesaw. mar<;ery daw 



! 



See Saw. up and down, In the air and on the ground 



4 



Sav. baw. 



m m m 

9 

Mar- ee - ry Daw. 



J ad 



hall have a new 



mas ter 



Ho sail earn but 




4& ^ ^ 

fjni - n> h day, B* 



k 






cause he can't work an v fast ter. 



(Choksy. 1999. p. 195) 



76 



SNAIL, SNAIL 



Snail, snail, snail, snail. so a - round and round and round. 



(Choksy, 1999. p. 193) 



STAR LIGHT, STAR BRIGHT 



Star - liuht 



star bright 



First star I 



see to - night, 




t 



(Choksy. 1999. p. 192) 



$$ 4& 



pgj 



Wish 1 may. Wish I might. Have the wish 1 wish to- night. 



77 



TEDDY BEAR 



Ted - dy Rear. Ted - dy Bear. turn a - round. 



Ted - dv Bear, Ted - dv Bear, 



touch the RTound. 









Ted - dy Bear - . Ted - dy Bear. touch your shoe, 



-m— m- 



Ted - dy Bear. Ted - dy Bear, 

(Choksy, 1999. p. 198) 



L_ 



i 



Now skid - do! 



7S 



The Closet Key 



Traditional 






uu 



f*. > — * 



tzar 






nt 






I have lost the clos - et key 



m 



in 



my ia - dy's gar 



den. 




Help me 



iEEEEi 



find the 



clos - et key 



^ * 



in my 



TFI 






a - dy's gar 



den. 



(Rann. 2005. p. 16; 



79 



THE COUNTING SONG 



One, two 

Five, six. 
Nine, ten. 



tie my shoe; 

pick up sticks; 

big f\it hen; 



Three, four, 
Seven, eight, 
'Leven. twelve. 



1 



shut the door; 
lay them straight; 
dig and delve. 



(Choksy, 1999, p. 190) 



Tick Tock 



IeI 

de-fjf 



Traditional 



Tick 



tock, 



tick 



tock. 



p! 



Lis 



ten now and 



hear the clock. 



(Rann. 2005. p. 14) 



80 



Appendix D: Comparison of Kodaly Program and Conversational Solfege 



81 



Comparison of the Kodaly Program and Conversational Solfege 





Kodaly 


Conversational Solfege 


Goal 


Musical literacy 


Musical literacy 


Solfege: Movable 
do 


Begin with SM 


Begin with DRM 


Rhythm Syllables 


Cheve's system 


Froseth and Gordon's system 


Meters 


Begin with duple 


Begin with duple and triple 


Musical Material 


Folk songs of one's own country, folk 

songs of other countries, classical music, 

and well composed music 


Folk songs of one's own country, folk songs 

of other countries, classical music, and well 

composed music 


Sequenced Steps 

used in 

Instruction 


Three Primary Steps: 

1. Preparation 

• Experience 

• Creativity/Improvisation 

2. Presentation (Make conscious) 

• Verbal then symbolic 

• Practice listening with 
familiar then unfamiliar 
material 

• Creativity/Improvisation 

3. Practice (Reinforce) 

• Practice reading and writing 
with familiar then 
unfamiliar material 

• Creativity/Improvisation 


Twelve Steps: 

1. Readiness rote 

2. Conversational solfege rote 

3. Conversational solfege, decode 
familiar 

4. Conversational solfege, decode 
unfamiliar 

5. Conversational solfege. create 

6. Reading rote 

7. Reading decode familiar 

8. Reading, decode unfamiliar 

9. Writing, rote 

10. Writing, decode familiar 

1 1 . Writing, decode unfamiliar 
12. Writing, create 


Preparing Lessons 


Include past, present, and future 


Include past, present, and future 


Origination 


Hungary 


United States 



82 



Appendix E: Melodic and Rhythmic Sequence 



83 



Melodic Sequence 



Kodaly Method 




Conversational Solfege 






So, Mi 


Do, Re, Mi 


La 


So 


Do 


La 


Re 


Fa 


Low La 


Low La 


High Do 


Low Ti 


Low So 


High Do 


Fa 


High Ti 


Ti 


Si 


Ii 


Fi 


Te 


Te 


Si 


Di and Ri 


Di and Ri 





(Szonyi, 1973) 



(Feierabend, 2001) 



84 



Rhythmic Sequence 



Kodaly Method 



Quarter note 



Two eighth notes 



Quarter rest 



2/4 time 



Half note 



Half rest 



Whole note 



Whole rest 



4/4 and 3/4 time 



Dotted half note 



Eighth note/quarter note/eighth note 



Eighth rest 



Eighth note/dotted quarter note 



Dotted quarter note/eighth note 



Four sixteenth notes 



Eighth note/two sixteenth notes 



Two sixteenth notes/eighth note 



Changing meters 



Triplet 



Dotted eighth note/sixteenth note 



Sixteenth note/dotted eighth 



2/8 time. 4/8 time, 3/8 time, and 6/8 
time (in that order) 



2/2 time 



9/8 time and 12/8 time 



Conversational Solfege 



21 A time 



Quarter note/two eighth notes 



6/8 time 



Dotted quarter note/three eighth notes 



Quarter note/eighth note (6/8) 



Quarter rest (2/4) 



Half note (2/4) 



Dotted quarter rest (6/8) 



Dotted half note (6/8) 



Eighth note/quarter note (6/8) 



Eighth note upbeat (2/4) 



Eighth note upbeat (6/8) 



Eighth rest (2/4) 



Eighth rest (6/8) 



Two sixteenth notes (2/4) 



Two sixteenth notes (6/8) 



Dotted quarter note/eighth note (2/4) 
Eighth note/dotted quarter note (2/4) 



Eighth note/quarter note/eighth note 
(2/4) 



Sixteenth note/eighth note/sixteenth 
note (2/4) 



Dotted eighth note/sixteenth note (2/4) 



Dotted eighth note/sixteenth 
note/eighth note (6/8) 



Sixteenth note/dotted eighth (2/4) 



Sixteenth note/dotted eighth note/eighth 
note (6/8) 



Triplet 



(Choksy, 1974) 



(Feierabend, 2001) 



85 



Appendix F: Rhythm Duration Syllables 



86 



Examples of Rhythm Duration Syllables Used in the Kodaly Method 

Developed Originally by Jacques Cheve (Choksy, 1981, p. 190) 



Notes 


Rhythmic Syllable 


Quarter Note 


Ta 


Two Eighth Notes 


Ti-ti 


Half Note 


Ta- 


Dotted Half Note 


Ta- 


Whole Note 


Ta— 


Dotted Quarter Note/Eighth Note 


Ta-i-ti 


Eighth Note/Dotted Quarter Note 


Ti-ta-i 


Triplet 


Tri-o-la 


Four Sixteenth Notes 


Ti-ri-ti-ri 


Eighth Note/Two Sixteenth Notes 


Ti-ti-ri 


Two Sixteenth Notes/Eighth Note 


Ti-ri-ti 


Eighth Note/Quarter Note/Eighth Note 


Syn-co-pa 


Dotted Eighth Note/Sixteenth Note 


Tim-ri 


Sixteenth Note/Dotted Eighth Note 


Ti-rim 



S7 



Examples of Rhythm Duration Syllables Used in Conversational Solfege 

Developed Originally by Froseth and Gordon (Feierabend, 2001, p. 277-282) 



Notes: in 2/4 or 4/4 Time 


Rhythmic Syllable 


Two Eighth Notes/Quarter Note 


Du-de Du 


Quarter Note/Quarter Rest 


Du 


Quarter Note Tied to a Quarter Note 


Du— (for length of beats) 


Half Note 


Du 


Four Sixteenth Notes/Quarter Note 


Du-tuh-de-tuh Du 


Two Sixteenth Notes/Eighth Note/Quarter Note 


Du-tuh-de- De 


Eighth Note/Two Sixteenth Notes/Quarter Note 


Du-de-tuh Du 


Eighth Note/Quarter Note/Eighth Note 


Du-de— de 


Dotted Eighth Note/Sixteenth Note/Quarter Note 


Du— tuh Du 


Notes: in 3/8, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8 Time 


Rhythmic Syllable 


Three Eighth Notes/Dotted Quarter Note 


Du-da-di Du 


Quarter Note/Eighth Note/Dotted Quarter Note 


Du-di Du 


Dotted Quarter Note/Dotted Quarter Rest 


Du - 


Dotted Half note 


Du— 


Six Sixteenth Notes/Dotted Quarter Note 


Du-tuh-da-tuh-di-tuh Du 


Eighth Note/Two Sixteenth Notes/Eight Note 


Du— da-tuh-di 


Dotted Eighth Note/Sixteenth Note/Eighth Note 


Du-tuh-di 


Two Eighth Notes/Two Sixteenth Notes/ 
Dotted Quarter Note 


Du-da-di-tuh Du 


Dotted Eighth Note Tied to a Dotted Eighth Note 


Du- 



88 



Examples of Rhythm Duration Syllables Developed Originally by Cheve 
and Adapted for North American Music Programs 

(Choksy et al., 2001, p. 88) 



Notes 


Rhythmic Syllable 


Quarter Note 


Ta 


Two Eighth Notes 


Ti-ti 


Four Sixteenth Notes 


Ti-ka-ti-ka 


Eighth Note/Two Sixteenth Notes 


Ti-tika 


Two Sixteenth Notes/Eighth Note 


Tika-ti 


Quarter Note/Eighth Note/Quarter Note 


Syn-co-pa 


Dotted Quarter Note/Eighth Note 


Tam-ti 


Eighth Note/Dotted Quarter Note 


Ti-tam 


Triplet 


Tri-o-la 


Half Note 


Too— 


Dotted Half Note 


Toom— 


Whole Note 


Toe— 



89 



Appendix G: Feierabend's "Letter to Elementary School Principal" 



90 



Dear Principal, 

As the new school year gets underway, I write to ask that you continue to support your 
elementary general music teacher's efforts to provide all students with the finest possible 
musical experiences. 

The typical general music teacher meets each music class just twice a week for thirty 
minutes during a thirty-six week school year. Annual general music class time totals thirty 
six hours-a mere day and a half of musical influence! Though often challenged to provide 
services for other teachers and to meet ongoing expectations of the administration and 
community, your general music specialist gives first priority to the musical growth and 
development of every student. 

Many children study music for the last time during the elementary grades. All can become 
proficient music makers who sing comfortably and in tune, move comfortably in response 
to music, and are sensitive to the expressive qualities in music. In addition, National 
Music Standards recommend that all children become musically literate. All should learn 
to play instruments, improvise and compose music, effectively evaluate music and 
musical performances, and understand relationships between music, the other arts, and 
disciplines outside the arts. These challenges are met with enthusiasm by your general 
music teacher, who is well equipped to enable his/her students to musically succeed. 

With your support, the music teacher will use limited class time wisely so that children 
can share the rich gift of music and become their musical best. Every minute counts. In 
some communities, however, the elementary music teacher is expected to prepare and 
present musical shows. Though shows may be attractive and offer public relations 
values, the cost in time is very high. To "look good" during performance, children must 
rehearse a few show songs for many weeks. Too often, the "show experience" focuses 
on music of doubtful quality, Show songs tend to encourage a projected voice style of 
singing that can be harmful to the child's developing voice. Shows eat up valuable 
teaching time that could be used to learn more expressive music and to offer the broader 
range of musical opportunities that all students should experience. 

Not long ago we were a society of music makers. Families and communities shared and 
performed a repertoire of traditional songs and dances. Influenced by modern 
technology, we have become a society of music consumers. Implicit in the elementary 
school "show" is the consumer attitude: music education-a place where children create 
entertaining products to be consumed by parents and other members of the community. 
Your general music teacher would like to help students build competencies that will allow 
them to integrate music into their lives so that they may become more than just the next 
generation of consumers. 

Your general music teacher is preparing lifelong musical skills for a generation of citizens 
who will be moved by quality music literature. They will feel comfortable when singing 
lullabies to their children, when singing during worship, or when dancing at a wedding. 
Rich musical processes are in jeopardy when the general music teacher must rob time 
from the music curriculum to present music products such as "shows." 

Public relations values can be found in other options than a show. These options 
showcase the musical growth and development of the students in your school. One of the 
best public relations tools is to invite parents into music classes one or two weeks each 
year. The parents sit with the students and participate in all music activities. Realizing 
what the students are able to accomplish by attempting the activity themselves develops 
a powerful appreciation of their child's music education. 



9) 



A May Day Festival, held during the school day or after school, is another activity that 
grows naturally out of general music class activities. Songs arid dances of good quality, 
taken from 

historic and/or traditional sources, offer a rich learning experience and make a delightful 
presentation that does not take weeks to refine. After students in each grade perform the 
songs and singing dances they have learned as part of their music curriculum, the oldest 
class might perform a traditional Maypole dance. Music making for each other creates a 
rare but desirable sense of community-far more valuable to children than performing for a 
mainly adult audience. Younger grades watch and anticipate learning the songs and 
dances the older grades perform; older grades revisit songs and dances learned in 
previous years as they watch the younger children. The May Day Festival is best when 
presented outdoors, where parents can bring blankets and sit with their children. Parents 
will likely be impressed or even amazed by these songs and intricate dances 
accompanied by songs. Requests for cutesy show songs and routines may even 
disappear, along with the annual show. 

Singing is the instinctive language of the child, and the younger he is the more he 
requires movement to go with it the organic connection between music and 
physical movement is expressed in singing games. These, particularly in the 
open air, have been one of the principle joys of childhood. (Zoltan Kod ly, 
Singing Games, 1937) 

Another option is an annual "Family Folk Dance Evening." Children bring their parents to 
school, where they are taught folk dances that the children have learned in general music 
classes This multigenerational. experience builds appreciation of the process of music 
making. There are no consumers, there is no audience. There are only music makers-all 
of them involved in the sharing of a wonderful but rare community spirit. 

Events such as "Winter Solstice," with seasonal songs and dances, or a "Harvest 
Festival," with barn dances and traditional songs, are also excellent ways to demonstrate 
students' musical growth and development. Both events use activities that grow naturally 
out of our cultural heritage and are central to the general music curriculum. The 
elementary school musical show product has little meaning in the students' future life or 
the larger musical world, but the process of learning traditional songs and dances 
prepares students for lifelong successful music making. 

As one of the few teachers who instructs all of the children in your school, the music 
teacher observes students' growth and development throughout their elementary years. 
Because of this fortunate situation, the general music teacher can create and monitor a 
curriculum that will produce remarkable musical growth during the time available. With 
your support, the music teacher can spend each year's day and half of class time in ways 
that encourage broad and lasting musical accomplishments. 

In closing, I wish to thank you in advance for helping to educate the community and other 
teachers about the real goals of the general music program. With your help we can hope 
for a more musical tomorrow. 

Sincerely, 

John M. Feierabend. President 
Organization of American Kodaly Educators 



V2 



References 
Beethoven, L. (1991). Symphony no. 5. [Recorded by Chicago Symphony Orchestra]. On 

Beethoven symphonies [CD]. New York: London Records. 
Campbell, P.S., & Scott-Kassner, C. (2006). Music in childhood: from preschool through the 

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